Career Highlight: Community Health

Introduction

Community health is the focus of the health of a population of a community group, rather than on individuals. It is a very distinct field of medicine and nursing, and therefore must be taught in a separate school of public or community health.

The health of a community in the current socio-economic climate poses many challenges that need to be overcome. There are many work opportunities that offer different kinds of responsibilities and skills that healthcare professionals are encouraged to look into.

insert image old docs

In history, there are a few diseases that have caused a big impact to the world; such diseases include smallpox, polio, measles and mumps. Whilst largely eradicated today, these were debilitating diseases that caused the death of millions, often in a very short span of time. Their eradication is due to large movements by governing bodies to curb these diseases by education and clinical methods to promote mass immunities. More recently, outbreaks like dengue, malaria, and HIV/AIDS continue to pose a threat to the health and well-being of local communities.

Community health has caused a lot of good even in non-medical sectors. Mandatory schooling was put into place after it was found that the industrial revolution workplace was detrimental to their well-being. The science of epidemiology (the study of diseases) came about after efforts to understand cholera were being propagated by the British. Also, stronger health and safety standards for foods brought about a remarked interest in wholesome foods for the European population.

Why is it important?

Herd immunity contains the spread of contagious diseases. It is the basis on which community health (or public health, depending on which region of the world you’re from) is formed upon.

Herd immunity is a concept in which most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.

Vaccines are used extensively in this; influenza, measles, mumps, rotavirus, and several dangerous pneumococcal strains are kept at bay due to herd immunizations. These debilitating diseases are extremely dangerous when left to infect a large community. It can cause losses of life, economic downturns, and even social upheaval.

insert image anti vaxxer

There is a growing anti-science and anti-vaccination movement that is seriously undoing all the work physicians, researchers, and epidemiologists have done. These people are averse to any form of scientific and health information that they put their communities at risk because they shun vaccinations and community health practices.

A major part of community health lies in the communication of healthcare. When the anti-vaccine crowd refuse to immunize their children, it puts their children and the children of others at risk of conntagions that would normally be of no issue. This fracture in the community is enough to bring back long-eradicated bugs into modern society. It is a major issue to address amongst community health practitioners, doctors, and nurses.

How does the work look like?

Community health is divided into three: primary, secondary, and tertiary. While loosely related, they all have differing lines of work, responsibility, and career progression.

Primary

Primary community healthcare focuses on the individual. These are interventions like hand-washing, personal hygiene, immunization, circumcision, diet, and so on.

Health communication is key in this area. One can be a nurse, but when working in primary he/she can be a speaker to communicate these practices to the public.

Secondary

This concerns the environment. The draining of puddles to prevent mosquito breeding, spraying of insecticides to avoid disease vectors like cockroaches , and clearing of rubbish to address rat populations are all part of this.

Tertiary

Tertiary healthcare consists of clinical interventions. Things like rehydration, surgery, and so on.

How to work in community health?

Your options are pretty wide. You can check out the public, education, private, and non-profit sectors.

In the public sector, institutes like IMR (Institute of Medical Research) work closely with the Ministry of Health (KKM) to deploy methods in increasing the health and wellness of Malaysians as a population. Recently they are doing extensive work combating childhood obesity with they myBFF (My Body is Fit and Fabulous) program.

The education sector will be rife of opportunities for clinicians who wish to work in a non-clinical setting. Universities, schools and colleges are potential work areas.

The private sector has a lot of companies waiting to get into the healthcare industry as a business. Our company MIMS provides timely information to educate the public and healthcare professionals on latest issues on healthcare. Also we provide a drug information service that physicians and consumers can search any time, anywhere.

Non-profit organizations like MAKNA (National Cancer Council Malaysia), or NKF (National Kidney Foundation) hire employees with a clinical background to help them raise awareness of the diseases or patients that they focus on. They constantly look out for people to help them with communication, treatments, and financing.

Career Progression

Search about these points below to know more about your potential career paths:

Search for high-paying nursing jobs on MIMS Career. Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.



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  source: Larm Rmah  

  1. Paediatrics  
 2. History  
 3. Key differences  
 4. Ethics  
 5. Training  
 6. Job scope  
 7. Required skills  
 8. Common Cases  
 9. Career Opportunities  

 Paediatrics 

 Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends people be under paediatric care up to the age of 21. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a paediatrician. 

 The word paediatrics can be spelled as either  paediatrics , as per British English, or  pediatrics , as per the American counterpart. Both spellings are acceptable. 

 The word paediatrics comes from two Greek words: “ pais “, meaning children, and “ iaitros “, meaning “doctor” or “healer”. Paediatric nurses usually work in hospitals, assisting physicians in specialized subfields like  neonatology . 

 History 

 Paediatrics is considered to be a new subset of medicine today. Ancient Greek physicians like Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen understood the differences in growing organisms like children; as compared to fully-mature adults. Soranus, a Greek physician and gynaecologist from Ephesus (located in modern-day Turkey) has published  records dealing with neonatal paediatrics . 

   

  source: EIT Mental Health  

 Paediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century. The first generally accepted paediatric hospital is the L’Hopital des Enfants Malades, which literally translates from French as “The Hospital for Ill Children.” It opened in Paris in the month of June, 1802. It accepted patients up to the age of 15 years, and still continues to operate today. 

 Key Differences Between Adult and Paediatric Medicine 

 Maturation of the human body is paralleled by differences in body size. In other words, the smaller the infant, the more different the physiology of the said patient. The smaller body of an infant or a neonate (a baby) provides a greater concern to physicians or nurses in the paediatric ward. Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues adversely affect children more than adults. 

 Children, therefore, must not be treated as “a smaller version of adults.” 

 Nurses and physicians in the paediatric specialty must take into account the immature physiology of the infant or child when considering symptoms, prescribing medications, and diagnosing illnesses. 

 Ethics 

 Another major difference between adult and paediatric medicine, is that  children cannot make decisions for themselves . This is important enough to warrant its own subsection in this article. 

 The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent must  always  be considered in every procedure. 

 
 … children cannot make decisions for themselves. 
 

 Rather than just treating the child, those working in paediatrics often have to treat the parents and the family. Adolescents are in their own legal class, depending on the country, and they have rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances. 

 Not only will a paediatric nurse or doctor take into account the desires of a child when considering treatment options, he or she will conform to the wishes of many people. This becomes especially  important when dealing with conditions of poor prognosis, and complicated or painful procedures.  

 Training 

 Courses are available to registered nurses who have completed a minimum number of service years. The number of years differ according to country. The qualifications range from advanced diplomas, to PhD research focusing on paediatric care. Many academicians forgo clinical practice in order to pursue research that will improve the quality of healthcare or bring about favourable policies to the care of children and adolescents. 

   

  source: paediatricemergencies.podbean.com  

 It is very common for paediatric nursing training to be comprised of  didactic  and clinical components covering the management and treatment of acute and complex child patients. 

 In Malaysia, paediatric training also comprises of management of sophisticated technology, providing nurses with the capability to offer quality care in a variety of situations. Training for disease prevention and recuperative treatment are also common modules in a paediatric nursing course. 

 Core modules of training would include  interpersonal skills and counselling ,  values and ethics ,  paediatric principles and practice ,  nursing of children with special needs ,  paediatric oncology , and some clinical practice. 

 Job scope and responsibilities 

 Typical activites may vary according to the role and work setting of the paediatric nurse. Children with special needs often require a different level of care compared to others. With that said, responsibilities include: 

 
	 assessment and critical reporting of patients 
	 preparing patients for pre- or post-op 
	 setting up drips, transfusions 
	 administering drugs and injections 
	 explaining procedures, treatments, to patients or guardians to acquire their consent to treatment 
	 support, comfort, and advise the child and family 
 

 Required skills 

 Children are sensitive, therefore tread lightly when giving care. Paediatric nurses need to display: 

 
	 respect towards the patients and their family’s decisions 
	 excellent communication skills 
	 be able to communicate on a level that the child would understand (if required) 
	 ability to deal with a range of patients at one time 
	 emotional resilience, and mentally strong to handle patients under difficult conditions 
	 compassion to others’ suffering 
 

 Common cases 

 Flat feet 

   

  source: smartlivingnetwork.com  

 Usually happens when the bar ossifies, about 8-12 years old. The tarsal area coalesces and causes rigid and painful flat feet. Operative treatment is not usually needed, unless severe. Usually managed non-operatively. 

 SUFE (Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis - also known as SCFE) 

   

  source: Raymond Liu, MD  

 This is a disease that afflicts adolescents (13-18 years old). The growth plate widens during growth spurt and some factors then predispose to slip. Adolescents who suffer from obesity, femoral neck retroversion, endocrinopathies, and trauma are particularly likely to be diagnosed with this. 

 Bradycardia 

   

  source: cardiachealth.org  

 Bradycardia is defined by a heart rate less than the lower limit of normal for age. For infants below 3 years, it is 100 bpm. For children 3-9 years, it is 60 bpm. For 9-16 years, it is 50 bpm. Bradycardial abnormalities can be diagnosed using the 12-lead ECG or the 24-hour holter monitor. 

 Exercise stress testing is not needed in the diagnosis, but may be helpful to determine chronotropic competence. 

 Non-neonatal jaundice 

   

  source: patient.info  

 Jaundice is a yellowish discolouration of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes due to high counts of bilirubin. It occurs as a result of abnormal bilirubin metabolism and/or secretion. Typically occuring in neonates, jaundice can occur in all age groups. 

 Treatment is done after classifying the jaundice as conjugated or unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the older child. Jaundice in older children may be the first clinical manifestation of unrecognized chronic liver disease. 

 Career opportunities 

 Paediatrics is one of those specialties that becomes deeper with more things to explore the more experience you have. Subspecialties in hospitals and community areas include: 

 
	  neonatal intensive care  
	 paediatric oncology 
	 child protection 
	 ambulatory care 
	 asthma 
	 diabetes 
	 counselling 
	 special needs 
 

 A more senior paediatric nurse is likely to have less and less clinical duties as a ward manager or ward sister. A future as a clinical unit manager is entirely within reach. 

 Outside clinical settings, opportunities to work in private healthcare, social services, NGOs, charities, or volunteer organizations are aplenty. 

 Search for high-paying nursing jobs on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to  prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.  
   

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Career Highlight: Paediatric Nursing

source: Larm Rmah 1. Paediatrics 2. History 3. Key differences 4. Ethics 5. Training 6. Job scope 7. Required skills 8. Common Cases 9. Career Opportunities Paediatrics Paediatrics is the...

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 Technological developments continue to improve well into the 21st century, bringing in advancements in surgical care. By extension, the responsibilities of the registered nurse that assists in patient care in the operating room/theater need to keep up with the times. 



 Definition: 

 These nurses who have more specialized duties in the OT/OR are called perioperative nurses. The word “peri-” is Greek for “about”, or “around”, “enclosing.” Just think of the word “perimeter. Hence, “perioperative nursing” means the care of a patient before, during, and after a surgical procedure. 



 Duties: 

 Typically, perioperative nurses fall into two categories: 

  Scrub nurse  - These nurses select and pass surgical instruments to the surgeon during the operation. He/she might also assist in the procedure. 

  Circulating nurse  - This kind of nurse manages the operating room. She ensures the place is safe for the patient and operating staff. 

  Anaesthetic nurse  - Provides support to the anaesthetist during or before the procedure. Duties include preparing the equipment, and administering anaesthesia to the patient in a safe manner. 

  Holding bay nurse  - this term might be called differently in other countries. The holding bay nurse is responsible to bring the patient up to speed in the pre-perioperative environment. She is also responsible for all the information to be correct prior to procedure, such as fasting status, reports, and medication. 

  Post-surgery Recovery Nurse  - As the name indicates, this nurse cares for the patient immediately after surgery. Tasks such as ensuring patient’s airways are open, recording results, are the norm. 

  It is common for a single perioperative nurse to carry two or three of the aforementioned duties during a patient’s course of the surgery.  



 Education: 

 A post-basic certification is needed in order to qualify one to take up perioperative duties. The duration of the post-basic training might be within 1-2 years. Nurses undergoing training are exposed to surgical care, intensive care, and treatment of critically ill patients.  

 Most post-basic programs require 3-4 years of work experience as a registered nurse beforehand.  



 Workload and Working Conditions: 

 Surgical procedures can be very long. Moreover, complications can sometimes occur, further delaying the endpoint of the surgery. 

 Perioperative nurses are expected to be alert of the patients’ vitals during the post-surgical state to monitor any signs of abnormalities. 

 Working hours may differ across institutions. A small clinic specializing in aesthetic surgery might have more regular hours, compared to a teaching hospital that has multiple wards. 

 Work conditions and intensity also depend on the severity and complexity of the patient’s surgery. 



 Opportunities in Perioperative Nursing 

 Like most areas of nursing, job opportunities continue to grow. This specialization is expected to grow at a high rate as more institutions begin to provide surgical procedures. 

 The additional training provided to nurses with perioperative backgrounds can open many career doors. In the future, they will be able to function as OT directors, handle fiscal matters, and other managerial aspects of the operating theater. 

 With some more experience, nurses can proceed to becoming academicians or educators, as well as go into research. 

  Read more on advancing your nursing career into nursing education HERE.  

 Salary and income  
Nurses with specialization (such as perioperative nursing) stand to earn higher than the national average of nurses’ income. However, it is subject to location and healthcare institution facilities. 

 For those in the public sector, you have a high chance of being put in a higher grade. 

  Read more on how nurses can increase their income HERE.  



 Source: 

  https://healthtimes.com.au/hub/perioperative/46/guidance/nc1/perioperative-nursing/563/  

  http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-clinic-school-of-health-sciences/careers/perioperative-nursing  

 Search for high-paying perioperative nursing jobs here at  MIMS Career . Sign up and apply today with our safe, secure, and free site. MIMS Career is an extensive job portal for healthcare practitioners such as nurses, doctors, and dentists throught Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. 

 Browse through our vast directory of job vacancies by top healthcare employers. See any jobs you like? Apply with one click, or save it for later if you need some time to think about it.  

 Can’t find what you’re looking for? Set up an email alert, and we’ll notify you when a job vacancy that meets your desired criteria becomes available.

Career Highlight: Perioperative Nursing

Technological developments continue to improve well into the 21st century, bringing in advancements in surgical care. By extension, the responsibilities of the registered nurse that assists in patient care in the operating room/theater need...

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 As productivity writer  Benjamin Hardy  puts it, survival mode is: “ your life being filled to the brim with nonessential and trivial things. You don’t have time to make anything meaningful. ” 

 Do you often feel like this? Crazy shift hours, demanding patients, children to take care and worry about at home… It’s no wonder that  nurses are falling sick because of their stress levels . Your busy life just gnaws at the corners of your mind. It’s difficult to sleep, hard to find time to eat, and care about yourself. As you fend off your exhaustion, you realize at the end of your day the worst thing about your predicament is that you have to face the same thing tomorrow. 

 And the next day. 

 And the next one. 

  So you go through life on autopilot.  

 There is a way to break this cycle, and return your sense of self. You will feel happier, healthier, and achieve your personal and professional goals with these simple daily practices. 

 Re-orient your life 

   

  Take charge of your life . Most importantly, be conscious of your decision to take charge of your life. Decide on a better way of looking at how you live, and decide to act on it. Intention is very important; actions only come after that. 

  A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow.  

 You have only one life; it would be a shame to live it miserably, because you won’t be getting any of your youth back. 

 Get Good Sleep 

   

 So many things can be attributed to the irregularity of sleep or the lack of it. Your concentration slips out frequently. Your memory is fuzzled. Your body feels tired, and has no energy. These are all detrimental to the patients under your care. Most importantly, it poses a real danger to your health. 

 Those who sleep 7-9 hours a day are proven to be healthier, fitter, and less likely to be obese or suffer from any other health issues. 

  “But wait…” you say. “I can’t do that! I work shifts.”  

 Don’t worry. Remember that you can space out your sleeps into naps if a long period of rest is not available to you. 

 There are so many benefits to getting enough sleep. Some of them are: 

 
	 Increased concentration 
	 Better cognitive abilities 
	 Less risk of cardiovascular diseases 
	 Reduced chances of depression 
 

 And so on. 

 Prayer, or meditation 

   

 Gratitude upon waking up, or when facing a difficult time, is one of the  best  habits you can form. This mindset of abundance primes you to cope better with challenging situations or periods of your life. Because you are always grateful for the things that you currently have, it negates the negative impact of focusing on the things you don’t have, or would like to be better. 

 Prayer and meditation helps you re-orient yourself to set your most important priorities. It also serves as a good “brain detox”. 

 Your life might be busy and hectic. By devoting some time to honing your spiritual center, you will learn to make sense and derive meaning in a chaotic world. 

 If you don’t know how to meditate, here’s the  5-minute meditation trick every nurse needs to know . 

 Exercise in moderation 

   

 At MIMS Career we all know most of you nurses are very tired. However, exercise is something that still should not be neglected. 

 Take walks. Walking can also be a form of meditation. Just walk a few minutes, being mindful of your surroundings and focusing on your surroundings. Try and get into the habit of exercising, too. It has many benefits which I’m sure you’re aware of. If you want a healthy mind, it has to start with care of the body. 

 No gym membership? Try some no-equipment home exercises. 

 Eat Healthy 

   

 Eat small, frequent meals as opposed to large meals in one sitting. 

 Those working shifts have a tendency to grab whatever food is available, and that is unhealthy. Try to prepare healthy snacks that you can bring to workplace, like cut fruits. 

 Pack food to work. Cooking packed lunches are a lot healthier because you are aware of what you put into your body. Experiment with simple 1-dish meals. They are light enough to bring in one container, and can simply be reheated in a microwave. 

 If going home to eat, experiment with freezing your prepared meals, or slow-marinading meat that you can throw in the oven right when you get back home. YouTube channels like Tasty can give you many ideas. 

 Consume Great Content 

   

 Read, even if you can only do it for ten minutes a day. If done every day, you’ll eventually finish many books in a year. 

 Podcasts and audiobooks are good to listen to on your commute.  Here’s a helpful article also written by me about getting started with podcasts.  

 The world’s most successful people all read at least one book a week. You don’t have to do that, but that goes to show how important the value of reading good content is. 

 By “good”, I don’t mean Facebook posts or tweets. I mean real, thought-provoking forms of prose that teach you something new. 

 Over time, just by doing 10 minutes a day, you’ll have more knowledge on different topics. It will make you a better writer, speaker, and you’ll develop a personality that future employers would absolutely love whenever you go for interviews. You will view the world in a different lens. 

  Here’s a great reading list for you to get started if you like.  

 Write down and review your goals every day 

   

 What are your goals? Write them down. Both short and long term. 

 Then do something that gets you closer to your long term goals every day. 

 Getting out of the rut that is your daily grind can be difficult, but very rewarding when done right. The location and working environment you’re in can make or break your learning curve towards attaining your career goals. 

 Which is why you should give MIMS Career a shot. Browse through our extensive directory of nursing jobs across Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, and more countries coming soon. Upload your resume and be notified of jobs you might be interested in. 

 Sign up for free, and discover the change of pace in life that you need to get out of autopilot today.

How Nurses Can Get Out of "Survival Mode"

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 Emergency Nursing 

 Emergency medicine, formerly known in some countries as accident and emergency medicine (A&E), is the medical specialty involving care for  undifferentiated and unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.  

 Overview 

 As first-line providers, emergency nurses and doctors are responsible for: 

 
	 initiating investigations and interventions to diagnose and/or treat patients in the acute phase 
	 coordinating care with doctors from other specialties 
	 making decisions regarding a patient’s need for hospital admission, observation, or discharge. 
 

 Emergency nurses generally practice in hospital emergency departments, wards, units or intensive care units. They may also be working at pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, such as in the event of a calamity like a road accident. Moreover, emergency nurses also may work in primary care, such as urgent care clinics. 

 History 

 During the 18th century the French Revolution brought upon the development of the ambulance. After seeing the speed with which the carriages f the French flying artillery maneuvered across the battlefields, French military surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey applied the idea for rapid transport of wounded soldiers to a central place where healthcare was accessible. 

 Emergency medicine and nursing is a relatively new field. It was only in 1979 that a vote by the American Board of Medical Specialties that emergency medicine became a recognized medical specialty in the United States. Other countries followed suit soon thereafter. 

 Scope of Work 

 Emergency nursing is a specialization based on the knowledge and skills for the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute and urgent aspects of illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a full spectrum of undifferentiated physical and behavioral disorders. 

 It further encompasses an understanding of the development of pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency medical systems and the skills necessary for this development. 

 Common Tasks 

 
	 Triaging of patients 
	 Suture complex lacerations 
	 reduce a fractured bone or dislocated joint 
	 treat a heart attack 
	 manage strokes 
	 stop severe nosebleeds 
	 placing a chest tube 
	 conducting emergency tracheostomy 
 

 Work location 

 Emergency nurses are tasked to provide the acute care of internal medical and surgical conditions. In many emergency departments, nurses are tasked with seeing an alarmingly large number of patients, treating their illnesses and arranging their next steps. 

 Training 

 There are a variety of models for emergency nursing training across the globe. In some countries the emergency nurse rides in the ambulance to and fro the scene of emergency. This is done to provide stabilizing care to the affected patient. 

 Nurses in emergency departments require a broad field of knowledge and advanced procedural skills of many nursing fields. They must know how to: 

 
	 Resuscitate a patient 
	 Carry out surgical procedures 
	 provide cardiac life support 
	 Manage patients’ airways 
 

 Specialization for emergency nursing often happens after a post-basic certification proceeding three years of service as a registered nurse. 

 Required skillset 

 Emergency nurses require an extensive amount of cool-headedness to handle the oncoming onslaught of daily tasks that present themselves. A great number of emergency ward cases are urgent and time-sensitive in nature, therefore the nurse needs to exercise great caution and patient, while being curt and efficient at the same time. 

 Good teamworking skills is essential. The role of an emergency nurse also involves proper triaging of patients into in- or out-patient services, and work with various specialists or fields to determine the best course of action following prognosis. A positive, proactive, and supportive nurse is beneficial in any emergency setting. 

 Clear communication skills are required in order to convey the correct information to emergency dispatchers or hospital emergency personnel. Failure in conveying correct medical info will prove to be disastrous for the patient, incur financial losses, and increase chances of litigation due to malpractice. 

 Career opportunities 

 Emergency nurses can work in a wide variety of settings, and they include: 

 
	 First aid volunteers 
	 Emergency medical services (BOMBA, paramedics) 
	 paediatric emergency medicine 
	 rescue squads 
	 emergency medical technician 
	 traumatology 
 

 It is not uncommon for nurses to leave clinical work in order to focus on research, especially at the post-graduate levels of study. 

 Search for high-paying nursing jobs on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are  heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.  
   

 Our Most Popular Articles 

  Think About These 5 Things Before You Decide On A Specialization  

  5 Things Nurses Need To Know To Be Paid More  

  10 Ways Malaysian Nurses Can Increase Their Income

Career Highlight: Emergency Nursing

Emergency Nursing Emergency medicine, formerly known in some countries as accident and emergency medicine (A&E), is the medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated and unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries...

Read More