Career Highlight: Community Health

Introduction

Community health is the focus of the health of a population of a community group, rather than on individuals. It is a very distinct field of medicine and nursing, and therefore must be taught in a separate school of public or community health.

The health of a community in the current socio-economic climate poses many challenges that need to be overcome. There are many work opportunities that offer different kinds of responsibilities and skills that healthcare professionals are encouraged to look into.

insert image old docs

In history, there are a few diseases that have caused a big impact to the world; such diseases include smallpox, polio, measles and mumps. Whilst largely eradicated today, these were debilitating diseases that caused the death of millions, often in a very short span of time. Their eradication is due to large movements by governing bodies to curb these diseases by education and clinical methods to promote mass immunities. More recently, outbreaks like dengue, malaria, and HIV/AIDS continue to pose a threat to the health and well-being of local communities.

Community health has caused a lot of good even in non-medical sectors. Mandatory schooling was put into place after it was found that the industrial revolution workplace was detrimental to their well-being. The science of epidemiology (the study of diseases) came about after efforts to understand cholera were being propagated by the British. Also, stronger health and safety standards for foods brought about a remarked interest in wholesome foods for the European population.

Why is it important?

Herd immunity contains the spread of contagious diseases. It is the basis on which community health (or public health, depending on which region of the world you’re from) is formed upon.

Herd immunity is a concept in which most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.

Vaccines are used extensively in this; influenza, measles, mumps, rotavirus, and several dangerous pneumococcal strains are kept at bay due to herd immunizations. These debilitating diseases are extremely dangerous when left to infect a large community. It can cause losses of life, economic downturns, and even social upheaval.

insert image anti vaxxer

There is a growing anti-science and anti-vaccination movement that is seriously undoing all the work physicians, researchers, and epidemiologists have done. These people are averse to any form of scientific and health information that they put their communities at risk because they shun vaccinations and community health practices.

A major part of community health lies in the communication of healthcare. When the anti-vaccine crowd refuse to immunize their children, it puts their children and the children of others at risk of conntagions that would normally be of no issue. This fracture in the community is enough to bring back long-eradicated bugs into modern society. It is a major issue to address amongst community health practitioners, doctors, and nurses.

How does the work look like?

Community health is divided into three: primary, secondary, and tertiary. While loosely related, they all have differing lines of work, responsibility, and career progression.

Primary

Primary community healthcare focuses on the individual. These are interventions like hand-washing, personal hygiene, immunization, circumcision, diet, and so on.

Health communication is key in this area. One can be a nurse, but when working in primary he/she can be a speaker to communicate these practices to the public.

Secondary

This concerns the environment. The draining of puddles to prevent mosquito breeding, spraying of insecticides to avoid disease vectors like cockroaches , and clearing of rubbish to address rat populations are all part of this.

Tertiary

Tertiary healthcare consists of clinical interventions. Things like rehydration, surgery, and so on.

How to work in community health?

Your options are pretty wide. You can check out the public, education, private, and non-profit sectors.

In the public sector, institutes like IMR (Institute of Medical Research) work closely with the Ministry of Health (KKM) to deploy methods in increasing the health and wellness of Malaysians as a population. Recently they are doing extensive work combating childhood obesity with they myBFF (My Body is Fit and Fabulous) program.

The education sector will be rife of opportunities for clinicians who wish to work in a non-clinical setting. Universities, schools and colleges are potential work areas.

The private sector has a lot of companies waiting to get into the healthcare industry as a business. Our company MIMS provides timely information to educate the public and healthcare professionals on latest issues on healthcare. Also we provide a drug information service that physicians and consumers can search any time, anywhere.

Non-profit organizations like MAKNA (National Cancer Council Malaysia), or NKF (National Kidney Foundation) hire employees with a clinical background to help them raise awareness of the diseases or patients that they focus on. They constantly look out for people to help them with communication, treatments, and financing.

Career Progression

Search about these points below to know more about your potential career paths:

Search for high-paying nursing jobs on MIMS Career. Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.



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 Think about working in Australia. The salary of nurses are one of the highest in the world. They have a large, interesting country with endless things to explore. The quality of life is great; it is second best globally. People live outside a lot more than they do here, are laidback, and friendly. 

 Working overseas, while initially scary, can be one of the best decisions you ever make. Being outside your comfort zone forces you to grow as you are tested by challenges that not many people will get the opportunity to go through. 

 Depending on where you go, it can be very different from back home. This change in environment builds confidence as a result of changes in your perspective. Not only will it look good on your resume for future career opportunities, a new country is a land of endless discovery that you can make during your downtime after work. 

 Want to work as a nurse in Australia? Read on to find out. 

  About Australia  
 Register with NMBA  
 Apply for skills assessment with AMNAC  
 Get on AHPRA online public register  
 Pass the AMNAC skills assessment  
 Living in Australia  

 About Australia 

 Because it was geographically isolated as an island for millions of years, many species can only be found on the Australian sub-continent. Australia is a rapidly advancing country: it is the 13th-largest economy, and is ninth on the list of income-per-capita. It ranks highly in terms of quality of life, healthcare, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and human rights. An influx in migration from all over the globe to Australia has resulted in the country becoming a rich, diverse, and friendly melting pot of cultures and ideas. 

 Register with NMBA 

 The process of migrating to Australia for work as a nurse involves a few regulating bodies. In a nutshell, in order to practice nursing, you’d have to register with the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA). This board handles your qualifications, and deems your education to be relevant, meeting Australian standards. Then you have to apply with the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council, or ANMAC. This body takes into account your work experience, and handles your migration to Australia. It is possible to be accepted by the NMBA, but rejected by the ANMAC. 

 The suggested pathway is to register with the NMBA first. For registration, they will assess you on three things: 

 
	 Criminal history
	 
		 English language skills (a recent result of tests like IELTS or TOEFL is needed) 
		 Recency of practice. You need to clear this part if you’ve already been practicing as a registered nurse here in Malaysia. Recent grads without prior work experience need not do this step. 
	 
	 
 

 Apply for skills assessment with AMNAC 

 Once this is done, and approved by NMBA, you then apply to AMNAC for a skills assessment. This is the application that will approve your migration to Australia. 

 They have five criteria to submit: 

 
	 Proof of identity 
	 English language proficiency (similar to NMBA criterion) 
	 Educational equivalence (whether or not the nursing degree or training is the same standard as AMNAC’s standards) 
	 Professional Practice 
	 Fitness to practice. 
 

 Get on AHPRA online public register 

 If you’ve graduated from Malaysia, you would have to complete some further training. This is because you do not meet Criteria 3- Education equivalence. Hence you would not be suitable for a skills assessment from AMNAC, which prevents your migration. 

 To get over this hurdle, you need to be on AHPRA’s online public register, which determines that you are fit to practice, and that your education and training are both deemed usable for their healthcare system. 

 This training can be in the form of a bridging program or something similar. Contact the Dept of Immigration and Border Protection for a visa to go to Australia to complete your training. 

 Pass the AMNAC skills assessment 

 Then there’s only left the final step! AMNAC will approve your application to go through their skills assessment. Once that’s done, they will issue a Letter of Determination. If you are suitable for migration, congrats! Head back over to Department of Immigration and Border Protection website to start the visa process. 

 Living in Australia 

 Australia has seven of the top 100 universities in the world so great place for education. Also, each year Australian Government provides approx $200 million dollars in scholarships for local and international students. It’s a good opportunity to raise your children there. 

 Australia is a safe, multicultural, friendly and harmonious society. It has a comparatively very low crime rate and strict gun control laws providing a safe place to live. 

 Medical insurance, healthcare facilities and doctor’s prescription medications are cheaper than many developed countries. So you can have a peace of mind whenever misfortunes happen. 

 Halal food is relatively easy to get in the larger cities. Lately the vegetarian movement has been very well-liked with the local populace. Regardless of your dietary needs, Australia is open enough to accommodate everyone. 

 Conclusion 

 Migration to another country can be scary. There are no certainties. No guarantees. You’d be leaving familiar environment behind, and embracing the change that will happen. Be proud of yourself for taking this next big step in your career. 

 As the world gets smaller and more connected, employers are more in need of healthcare practitioners who are open-minded, culturally-exposed, and competent to meet the needs of 21st century challenges. 

 You stand to gain a new skillsets from experienced specialists who work in challenging environments. It will solidify your confidence - and compassion. That compassion will come from the realization that despite differing borders and flags, we are still one big family. The realization that we’re not so different after all, and that access to health care is a basic human right. 

 Start applying for nursing jobs overseas with MIMS Careers. Just signup, input your details and resume, and you will be able to apply for those job posts with a single click. Not only that, you can save jobs you are interested in for later viewing. 

 Can’t find what you’re looking for? Set up job alerts so we can notify you of new employers that meet your search criteria.

How to Work as A Nurse in Australia

Think about working in Australia. The salary of nurses are one of the highest in the world. They have a large, interesting country with endless things to explore. The quality of life is great; it is second best globally. People live...

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  1. Start high  
 2. Look for an agreeable outcome  
 3. Be aware of supply in the area  
 4. Rates are not permanent  
 5. Negotiate other aspects of your rates  

 Locum Jobs 

 An advantage of taking up locum jobs to boost your income is that you have some flexibility to work. You choose the schedule that you are available to fit into. Also, it can  improve your CV  for future job applications at other institutions by showing that you have a diverse set of employers. 

 For new nurses, doing locum allows you extra time and exposure to choose how you want to plan out your nursing career. Like selecting a specialization. You can read more on the  advantages of doing locum to increase your income here . 

 People seem to be paralyzed into inaction when it comes to setting rates, simply accepting whatever the clinic offers to pay you. While this article focuses on nurses doing locum jobs at private practices, we hope that these points will still be able to help doctors, pharmacists, dentists, and other healthcare practitioners as well. 

 1. Start high 

   

  source: @dan_carl5on  

 Start out by always proposing a rate higher than you would. It doesn’t have to be a lot. 

 Say your desired rate is RM20 an hour. Just mention RM25 as your starting rate. You can slowly reduce it to the price that you sought out initially when discussing with the clinic or institution. 

 You don’t want to be working with people who feel like they have to squeeze the most out of their budget to accommodate you. Such scenarios do not lead to healthy long-term relationships. It’s better to make them feel like they’ve got a good deal. 

 2. Look for an agreeable outcome 

   

  source: pixabay  

 Remember, the owner of the clinic wants to fill some gaps in his workforce, and you want to get paid. Think of it as a bridge. Both of you are on either side. The best outcome is if you both meet in the middle. 

 Don’t rip people off. Good negotiation is about both parties walking away feeling like they both got a good deal. If you think that milking out money from people to the point where they are reluctantly agreeing to your prices, think again. That relationship isn’t going to last very long. 

 The best employer (whether they employ you full-time or otherwise) is one that continuously offers you work. They can’t do that if they don’t like you. 

 3. Be aware of supply in the area 

   

  source: pixabay  

 A lot of nurses doing locum jobs in the area? That might affect your locum fees. Try to look for clinics or institutions that have an under-supply of part-time nurses. The main reason why your locum employer is paying you below average is probably because a replacement for you is so easy to find. 

 Price is a reflection of the demand for the locum jobs and the supply of those capable of doing it in the area. This is commonly known as the law of supply and demand in economics. It applies here as well. 

 4. Rates are not permanent 

   

  source: here  

 Rates are not set in stone. Even if you’ve negotiated quite a while ago, you can still make some changes if you approach the employer tactfully. 

 Explain that you’ve been here for a while, and that you haven’t let him/her down. So you’d like an increase in your rates. 

 The worst thing that can happen is they say no. Don’t worry. It’s not the end of the world. At least you tried. 

 5. Negotiate other aspects of your rates 

   

  source: pixabay  

 While there is a fixed rate for your schedule, try to consider other aspects as well. Things like emergency calls, or last-minute requests to come in for locum. 

 Make it clear to the employer that these are out-of-the-norm occurrences, and that you would like to be compensated accordingly. 

 6. Losing locum jobs is not necessarily a bad thing 

   

  source: blupics  

 When increasing your rates, this isn’t necessarily a bad thing. Doubling your rates but losing half of locum opportunities is great. You get the same amount at the end, but work half as much, which frees up your time. 

 Plus, sometimes someone who charges RM40 per hour looks more professional and qualified than someone who charges RM20 per hour. 

 Conclusion 

 Don’t just look at financial rates; benefits are important as well. Is the job good for your reputation? Are they likely to recommend you to others? 

 Is the work consistent and secure? Do you trust the employer? 

 Remember these 6 steps when negotiating your fees.  If you don’t value your time, no one else will.  

 Browse through  MIMS Career  for an easy way to find locum or part-time jobs in your area.  MIMS Career  is a premier, healthcare-focused job portal site for Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia. Our simple sign-up process allows you to easily apply for jobs you might be interested in with a single click. Job locations include hospitals, nursing homes, and private practices. It’s free, easy to use, and safe. 

 Can’t find what you’re looking for? Set up a job alert and we’ll notify you by email whenever positions that suit your preferences are available. All of our pages are mobile-responsive, so you can take your applications with you on the go. 
   

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 Gynaecology is the medical practice of dealing with the health of the female reproductive system and the breasts. Literally the term gynaecology means “the study of women.” The opposite of gynaecology is andrology, which deals in male-specific medical issues. 

  Almost all modern gynaecologists are obstetricians : physicians who deal in the branch of medicine and surgery of childbirth and labor. These two fields overlap in many areas, therefore in many institutions Obstetrics and Gynaecology are lumped together as O&G. 

 Gynaecology is concerned with the health of the female reproductive organs and the ability to reproduce. It also encompasses paediatric and adolescent problems to post-menopausal ages. 

 History 

 From ancient Egypt circa 1800 BC, the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus is the oldest known medical text of any kind. It writes about women’s complaints; gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. In the 4th century BC Hippocrates wrote texts about gynaecological diseases that were common afflictions to Greek women at the time. 

 J Marion Sims is widely considered to be the father of gynaecology. He operated during the 19th century at Jefferson Medical College, New York. However the title is now being scrutinized due to his unethical development of his surgical techniques. He operated a lot on slaves, many of whom were not given anaesthesia. 

 Training 

 Post-basic courses on midwifery, gynaecology, and obstetrics are considered to be part of gynaecological training. If desired, a nurse can opt to pursue a Masters in order to carry out research work in the field, and proceed to doctorate studies. 

 Training is given out to encourage the study and advancement of the practice of gynaecology. It is also done by the publication of clinical guidelines and reports on aspects of the specialty and service provision. 

 Gynaecology is a vast field. Nurses who work in this area have sub-specialties in high-risk obstetrics, fertility care, or minimal access surgery. The job most deals with healthy women, where unexpected challenges can present themselves on a daily basis. Work includes a large number of hands-on procedures, and training reflects that. 

 Common Cases 

 Patients range from those who have chronic disorders which are not life threatening, to those who require immediate acute emergency treatment. 

 Nurses in this field are often required to provide assistance during operative procedures. Some of the common procedures a gynaecological nurse with oversee include: 

 
	 dilation and curettage 
	 Oophorectomy 
	 Exploratory laparotomy 
	 Treatments for urinary incontinence 
	 Cervical excision procedures 
	 treatment of polyps 
	 surgery for cancers 
 

 A major part of a gynaecology nurse is the delivery of infants. Their work includes: 

 
	 assist delivery using instruments (forceps or vacuum) 
	 C-sections 
	 Foetal health 
 

 Career Opportunities 

 
	 Independent Nurse Consultant 
	 Educator 
	 Training programme director for gynaecology nursing 
	 
	 Research in public and private sectors 
	 
	 - 
 
   

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  1. Specialization tasks  
 2. Pathway  
 3. Common job scopes  
 4. Common terms  
 5. Career opportunities  

 Cardiology 

 Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system the field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of  congenital heart defects ,  coronary artery disease ,  heart failure ,  valvular heart disease  and  electrophysiology . Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons. The supporting role of the surgeons and physicians are  cardiology nurses . 

 Although the cardiovascular system is inextricably linked to blood, cardiology is relatively unconcerned with hematology and its diseases. Some obvious exceptions that affect the function of the heart would be blood tests, decreased oxygen carrying capacity, and  coagulopathies . 

   

  source: Resus.me  

 Specialization Tasks 

 All cardiologists study the disorders of the heart and all cardiology nurses are trained to take care of either adult or children conditions. This is due to differing aspects of training for adult and paediatric physiology. Surgical aspects are not included in cardiology and are in the domain of cardiothoracic surgery. 

 For example, coronary artery bypass surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass are both surgical procedures performed by surgeons, and not cardiologists. As a nurse, your task will be that of assisting the cardiologists in this matter. A properly-trained cardiology nurse would have the necessary critical thinking in order to draw conclusions to make meaningful impact of treatment. 

 Common tasks in the wards that you might have to do include the insertion of stents, pacemakers, and valves. 

 Pathway 

   

  source: verywell  

 Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiology nurse, a three-year work experience followed by a post-basic or relevant course is required. It is possible to sub-specialize in Malaysia. Recognized sub-specialties in cardiology for Malaysia are cardiac  electrophysiology ,  echocardiography,  interventional cardiology, and  nuclear cardiology . 

 Currently there is insufficient data for Malaysia, for salary, but it is guaranteed to be higher or on par with other similar nursing specialists. 

 Common job scopes 

 Cardiology is a vast field. Not only does it involve the heart and its systems, it also involves supporting systems such as haematology and its diseases. It is important to know and train for this when pursuing this specialization. 

 Cardiac electrophysiology 

   

  An example of echocardiography  

 This is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to desccribe studies of such phenomena by  invasive catheter recording  of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulations. These studies are performed to assess complex arrythmias, relieve symptoms, evauate abnormal ECGs, assess risk of developing arrhythmias in the future, and to design treatment. 

 Cardiac examination 

 The cardiology nurse is able to carry out cardiac examinations of patients. It is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology. It would typically be modified depending on the indication and integrated with other examinations especially the respiratory examination. Like all medical examinations, the cardiac examination follows the standard structure of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. 

 Paediatric cardiology 

   

  source  

 Paediatric cardiology is a specialty of paediatrics. To be a paediatric cardiology nurse, one must complete at least three years of registered working experience and pass all the required courses. Adult cardiology certifications are not valid due to differences in physiology in children. 

 Common complications that you will see as a nurse practicing paediatric cardiology are  paediatric hypertension ,  paediatric hyperlipidemia , heart palpitations and arryhthmias. 

 Diagnostic tests 

 Diagnostic tests in cardiology are the methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy pathology heart function. It is commonly started by obtaining a medical history, followed by auscultation. Blood tests soon precede after, and imaging can be done on a need-to-do basis. 

 Common terms 

 1. Tetralogy of Fallot 

 It is the most common congenital ehart disease arising in 1-3 cases per 1000 births. The cause of this defect is a ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. These two defects combined causes deoxygenated blood to bypass the lungs and going right back into the circulatory system. The modified  Blalock-Taussig  is used as a treatment for this condition. 

 2. Pulmonary atresia 

 This happens in 7-8 births per 100,000 and is characterized by the aorta brancing out of the right ventricle. It causes deoxygenated blood to bypass the lungs and enter the circulatory system. Fixing it can by done by a team of cardiologists and nurses by redirecting the aorta and fixing the right ventricle-pulmonary artery connection in surgeries. 

 3. Double Outlet Right Ventricle 

 Double outlet right ventricle is when both great arteries, the pulmonary artery and the aorta, are connected to the right ventricle. There is usually a ventricle in different particular places depending on the variations of DORV, typically 50% are subaortic. A VSD closure is the most common form of treatment for this condition. 

 Career opportunities 

 Search for  high-paying cardiology nursing jobs  on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to  prevent scams and mistrustful behavior . 
   

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  Think About These 5 Things Before You Decide On A Specialization  

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A Career in Cardiology

1. Specialization tasks 2. Pathway 3. Common job scopes 4. Common terms 5. Career opportunities Cardiology Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory...

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