Career Highlight: Community Health

Introduction

Community health is the focus of the health of a population of a community group, rather than on individuals. It is a very distinct field of medicine and nursing, and therefore must be taught in a separate school of public or community health.

The health of a community in the current socio-economic climate poses many challenges that need to be overcome. There are many work opportunities that offer different kinds of responsibilities and skills that healthcare professionals are encouraged to look into.

insert image old docs

In history, there are a few diseases that have caused a big impact to the world; such diseases include smallpox, polio, measles and mumps. Whilst largely eradicated today, these were debilitating diseases that caused the death of millions, often in a very short span of time. Their eradication is due to large movements by governing bodies to curb these diseases by education and clinical methods to promote mass immunities. More recently, outbreaks like dengue, malaria, and HIV/AIDS continue to pose a threat to the health and well-being of local communities.

Community health has caused a lot of good even in non-medical sectors. Mandatory schooling was put into place after it was found that the industrial revolution workplace was detrimental to their well-being. The science of epidemiology (the study of diseases) came about after efforts to understand cholera were being propagated by the British. Also, stronger health and safety standards for foods brought about a remarked interest in wholesome foods for the European population.

Why is it important?

Herd immunity contains the spread of contagious diseases. It is the basis on which community health (or public health, depending on which region of the world you’re from) is formed upon.

Herd immunity is a concept in which most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.

Vaccines are used extensively in this; influenza, measles, mumps, rotavirus, and several dangerous pneumococcal strains are kept at bay due to herd immunizations. These debilitating diseases are extremely dangerous when left to infect a large community. It can cause losses of life, economic downturns, and even social upheaval.

insert image anti vaxxer

There is a growing anti-science and anti-vaccination movement that is seriously undoing all the work physicians, researchers, and epidemiologists have done. These people are averse to any form of scientific and health information that they put their communities at risk because they shun vaccinations and community health practices.

A major part of community health lies in the communication of healthcare. When the anti-vaccine crowd refuse to immunize their children, it puts their children and the children of others at risk of conntagions that would normally be of no issue. This fracture in the community is enough to bring back long-eradicated bugs into modern society. It is a major issue to address amongst community health practitioners, doctors, and nurses.

How does the work look like?

Community health is divided into three: primary, secondary, and tertiary. While loosely related, they all have differing lines of work, responsibility, and career progression.

Primary

Primary community healthcare focuses on the individual. These are interventions like hand-washing, personal hygiene, immunization, circumcision, diet, and so on.

Health communication is key in this area. One can be a nurse, but when working in primary he/she can be a speaker to communicate these practices to the public.

Secondary

This concerns the environment. The draining of puddles to prevent mosquito breeding, spraying of insecticides to avoid disease vectors like cockroaches , and clearing of rubbish to address rat populations are all part of this.

Tertiary

Tertiary healthcare consists of clinical interventions. Things like rehydration, surgery, and so on.

How to work in community health?

Your options are pretty wide. You can check out the public, education, private, and non-profit sectors.

In the public sector, institutes like IMR (Institute of Medical Research) work closely with the Ministry of Health (KKM) to deploy methods in increasing the health and wellness of Malaysians as a population. Recently they are doing extensive work combating childhood obesity with they myBFF (My Body is Fit and Fabulous) program.

The education sector will be rife of opportunities for clinicians who wish to work in a non-clinical setting. Universities, schools and colleges are potential work areas.

The private sector has a lot of companies waiting to get into the healthcare industry as a business. Our company MIMS provides timely information to educate the public and healthcare professionals on latest issues on healthcare. Also we provide a drug information service that physicians and consumers can search any time, anywhere.

Non-profit organizations like MAKNA (National Cancer Council Malaysia), or NKF (National Kidney Foundation) hire employees with a clinical background to help them raise awareness of the diseases or patients that they focus on. They constantly look out for people to help them with communication, treatments, and financing.

Career Progression

Search about these points below to know more about your potential career paths:

Search for high-paying nursing jobs on MIMS Career. Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.



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  source: Larm Rmah  

  1. Paediatrics  
 2. History  
 3. Key differences  
 4. Ethics  
 5. Training  
 6. Job scope  
 7. Required skills  
 8. Common Cases  
 9. Career Opportunities  

 Paediatrics 

 Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends people be under paediatric care up to the age of 21. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a paediatrician. 

 The word paediatrics can be spelled as either  paediatrics , as per British English, or  pediatrics , as per the American counterpart. Both spellings are acceptable. 

 The word paediatrics comes from two Greek words: “ pais “, meaning children, and “ iaitros “, meaning “doctor” or “healer”. Paediatric nurses usually work in hospitals, assisting physicians in specialized subfields like  neonatology . 

 History 

 Paediatrics is considered to be a new subset of medicine today. Ancient Greek physicians like Hippocrates, Aristotle, Celsus, Soranus, and Galen understood the differences in growing organisms like children; as compared to fully-mature adults. Soranus, a Greek physician and gynaecologist from Ephesus (located in modern-day Turkey) has published  records dealing with neonatal paediatrics . 

   

  source: EIT Mental Health  

 Paediatrics as a specialized field of medicine continued to develop in the mid-19th century. The first generally accepted paediatric hospital is the L’Hopital des Enfants Malades, which literally translates from French as “The Hospital for Ill Children.” It opened in Paris in the month of June, 1802. It accepted patients up to the age of 15 years, and still continues to operate today. 

 Key Differences Between Adult and Paediatric Medicine 

 Maturation of the human body is paralleled by differences in body size. In other words, the smaller the infant, the more different the physiology of the said patient. The smaller body of an infant or a neonate (a baby) provides a greater concern to physicians or nurses in the paediatric ward. Congenital defects, genetic variance, and developmental issues adversely affect children more than adults. 

 Children, therefore, must not be treated as “a smaller version of adults.” 

 Nurses and physicians in the paediatric specialty must take into account the immature physiology of the infant or child when considering symptoms, prescribing medications, and diagnosing illnesses. 

 Ethics 

 Another major difference between adult and paediatric medicine, is that  children cannot make decisions for themselves . This is important enough to warrant its own subsection in this article. 

 The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent must  always  be considered in every procedure. 

 
 … children cannot make decisions for themselves. 
 

 Rather than just treating the child, those working in paediatrics often have to treat the parents and the family. Adolescents are in their own legal class, depending on the country, and they have rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances. 

 Not only will a paediatric nurse or doctor take into account the desires of a child when considering treatment options, he or she will conform to the wishes of many people. This becomes especially  important when dealing with conditions of poor prognosis, and complicated or painful procedures.  

 Training 

 Courses are available to registered nurses who have completed a minimum number of service years. The number of years differ according to country. The qualifications range from advanced diplomas, to PhD research focusing on paediatric care. Many academicians forgo clinical practice in order to pursue research that will improve the quality of healthcare or bring about favourable policies to the care of children and adolescents. 

   

  source: paediatricemergencies.podbean.com  

 It is very common for paediatric nursing training to be comprised of  didactic  and clinical components covering the management and treatment of acute and complex child patients. 

 In Malaysia, paediatric training also comprises of management of sophisticated technology, providing nurses with the capability to offer quality care in a variety of situations. Training for disease prevention and recuperative treatment are also common modules in a paediatric nursing course. 

 Core modules of training would include  interpersonal skills and counselling ,  values and ethics ,  paediatric principles and practice ,  nursing of children with special needs ,  paediatric oncology , and some clinical practice. 

 Job scope and responsibilities 

 Typical activites may vary according to the role and work setting of the paediatric nurse. Children with special needs often require a different level of care compared to others. With that said, responsibilities include: 

 
	 assessment and critical reporting of patients 
	 preparing patients for pre- or post-op 
	 setting up drips, transfusions 
	 administering drugs and injections 
	 explaining procedures, treatments, to patients or guardians to acquire their consent to treatment 
	 support, comfort, and advise the child and family 
 

 Required skills 

 Children are sensitive, therefore tread lightly when giving care. Paediatric nurses need to display: 

 
	 respect towards the patients and their family’s decisions 
	 excellent communication skills 
	 be able to communicate on a level that the child would understand (if required) 
	 ability to deal with a range of patients at one time 
	 emotional resilience, and mentally strong to handle patients under difficult conditions 
	 compassion to others’ suffering 
 

 Common cases 

 Flat feet 

   

  source: smartlivingnetwork.com  

 Usually happens when the bar ossifies, about 8-12 years old. The tarsal area coalesces and causes rigid and painful flat feet. Operative treatment is not usually needed, unless severe. Usually managed non-operatively. 

 SUFE (Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis - also known as SCFE) 

   

  source: Raymond Liu, MD  

 This is a disease that afflicts adolescents (13-18 years old). The growth plate widens during growth spurt and some factors then predispose to slip. Adolescents who suffer from obesity, femoral neck retroversion, endocrinopathies, and trauma are particularly likely to be diagnosed with this. 

 Bradycardia 

   

  source: cardiachealth.org  

 Bradycardia is defined by a heart rate less than the lower limit of normal for age. For infants below 3 years, it is 100 bpm. For children 3-9 years, it is 60 bpm. For 9-16 years, it is 50 bpm. Bradycardial abnormalities can be diagnosed using the 12-lead ECG or the 24-hour holter monitor. 

 Exercise stress testing is not needed in the diagnosis, but may be helpful to determine chronotropic competence. 

 Non-neonatal jaundice 

   

  source: patient.info  

 Jaundice is a yellowish discolouration of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes due to high counts of bilirubin. It occurs as a result of abnormal bilirubin metabolism and/or secretion. Typically occuring in neonates, jaundice can occur in all age groups. 

 Treatment is done after classifying the jaundice as conjugated or unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the older child. Jaundice in older children may be the first clinical manifestation of unrecognized chronic liver disease. 

 Career opportunities 

 Paediatrics is one of those specialties that becomes deeper with more things to explore the more experience you have. Subspecialties in hospitals and community areas include: 

 
	  neonatal intensive care  
	 paediatric oncology 
	 child protection 
	 ambulatory care 
	 asthma 
	 diabetes 
	 counselling 
	 special needs 
 

 A more senior paediatric nurse is likely to have less and less clinical duties as a ward manager or ward sister. A future as a clinical unit manager is entirely within reach. 

 Outside clinical settings, opportunities to work in private healthcare, social services, NGOs, charities, or volunteer organizations are aplenty. 

 Search for high-paying nursing jobs on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to  prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.  
   

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 A common question asked to academic counselors by prospective nursing students is: “So how’s the life of a nurse? What kind of hours to they work?” 

 It depends. It really depends on your location, academic qualifications, experience, country of practice, working environment… Really, I could make a long list but then the article would be way too long. 

 So our team at MIMS Career has sifted through the working hours of a lot of different types of nurses, so you can have an idea of what kind of career choices you’d have to make to go towards that kind of life. We’ve categorized it in five parts: a little, a bit, normal, a bit more, and a lot. 



 A little (3-5 hours a day) 

 Part-time nurse practitioners 

 These nurses mostly work doing house calls, or are doing contract jobs with non-medical institutions like schools or companies. Their employers do not require their presence most of the time, so as little as 3-5 hours per work session is pretty common. Part-time nurse practitioners usually have another job other than their nursing one. 

  Find out how to become a part-time nurse practitioner in our in-depth nursing career advancement guide HERE.  

 A bit (5-8 hours a day) 

 Locum nurses 

 Locum nurses work part time shifts in clinics or hospitals or other medical-related institutions. They are not on the payroll of the institution they work with; as they are only meant to supplement the institution’s own workforce. On average a locum nurse’s shift is about 5-8 hours. 

 It is more common to see nurses doing locum jobs to supplant their monthly income, but nurses who exclusively do locum jobs exist, albeit rare.  

  Find out part-time locum jobs for nurses on our career portal HERE.  

 Normal (8-10 hours a day) 

 Nurse instructors, academicians, dialysis nurses 

 These nurses work office hours. This is as normal as it gets. Dialysis centers and nursing schools all have regular, fixed schedules that don’t demand anything more than the usual office workday. 

 Same goes for those who work in nursing schools as teachers, trainers, or professors.  You can find out what it takes to be an academician in the nursing world in our article about lifelong learning HERE.  

 These kinds of nurses don’t normally work weekends, and their schedules are mostly the same and predictable. 

 A bit more (10-14 hours a day) 

 Those involved in direct patient care, like emergency room nurses 

 Most of the time, when nurses at the ER say they work a 12-hour shift from 7am to 7pm, they almost always never get to get out on time. There’s always something to do, someone else to cover, or some loose ends to tie up. 

 This is made even worse by working in hospitals with a shortage of staff. Nurses would be brought in to do things that are not in their job scope, because they can do those tasks. But people who are not nurses do not do nursing tasks because they cannot do those tasks. How many times have you been to an ER, and see a nurse doing clerical work at the front desk because the hospital doesn’t have a secretary or clerk? 



 A lot (14-24 hours a day) 



 Paediatric intensive care, intensive care, surgical, labor and delivery. 

 It is very common to see nurses doing double shifts in these wards. Their shifts might be 12 hours, but are sometimes to do two of those shifts back-to-back to reduce shift handovers, staffing overlap, and reduce costs. 

 Moreover, the type of work that this category of nurses do are a bit on the lengthier side. Surgeries can go up to 24 hours, including perioperative care. Intensive care can be very demanding as patients hover around critical states. 

 There is a variety of workloads for nurses. Each type of work suits different people who prioritize different things. With MIMS Career you have the opportunity of applying with ease to the jobs that you want to go into. Signup and apply with our easy, 1-click application process. Browse for jobs in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Indonesia. Save jobs for later if you’re still on the fence. Also, you can opt for job alerts if nothing fancies you. 

  Signup and apply today! It’s fast, secure, and free.

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 For those nurses serving with  Kementrian Kesihatan Malaysia  (KKM), the start of your work life will present you with one of the toughest choices you’ll make: 

 
 EPF (Employees’ Provident Fund, also known as KWSP), or choose the pension fund? 
 

 Both are viable options in securing your financial health after you retire. Although retirement might seem like ages away, a good amount of planning and successful investments can mean the difference between being able to live comfortably in your golden years, or struggle with daily or medical expenses. 

 So which to choose? We’ll break down the points below. 

 Pension fund 

  What is it?  
It’s a monthly stipend of a set amount, provided by the Public Services Department upon your retirement. In addition to that, you also receive a  gratuity  payment, and medical/health benefits. 

  Calculation  
Here we will be assuming that you start work at 20 years old, with a starting salary of RM2,000, and continue working until you retire at 55 with a salary of RM5,600 (3% annual pay increase). 

 Your monthly pension will be your last drawn salary, divided by two. For example, if your base salary is RM5,000 when you retire, your monthly stipend will be RM2,800/mo. 

 In addition to that, you will receive gratuity payment, which is calculated as such: 

 
 gratuity = 7.5% x 35yrs x 12 months x RM5,600 (final drawn salary) 
= RM 176,400. 
 

 RM176,400 will be given as a lump sum, while RM2,800 will be given per month. Again, this is all assuming you retire at 55, with a final salary of RM5,600. 

  Benefits  

 
	 No subtraction from base pay. 
 

 Unlike EPF, as we will see later, there is no subtraction from your base salary. 

 
	 Guaranteed monthly retirement funding 
 

 Again, unlike EPF, where your money can be withdrawn for other uses, pension takers are guaranteed to have a monthly source of income. 

  Disadvantages  

 
	 You have to start and end your service in the public/government sector. It might hamper your ability to seek work overseas, better base salaries, or even some chances to study. 
 

 EPF or Employees Provident Fund (KWSP - Kumpulan Simpanan Wang Pekerja) 

  What is it?  
EPF is the accumulation of savings generated from deductions of your base salary. Currently, you can choose either 11%, or 8%, as  recently announced . 

 This accumulation of money is further grown by annual dividends. On average the dividend is around 6%, depending on the GDP (gross domestic product) of the country. 

 What makes EPF great as long term savings is due to the magic of  compound interest. . Your employer also contributes to your fund (12% of your pay). These two things make an EPF account grow substantially when properly managed. 

  2 accounts  

 Your EPF savings are divided into two accounts. 70% goes into account 1, and the rest to account 2. Account 1 is your retirement funds. Account 2 is withdrawable, under a few conditions: 

 
	 more than 50 years old 
	 Housing downpayment for your 1st house 
	 housing loan payment 
	 education 
	 medical costs 
	 Hajj pilgrimage 
 

 Upon reaching the age of 55, you will be able to withdraw from account 1. You will have to choose to withdraw one lump sum, or as a monthly stipend like a pension. 

  Calculation  

 Let’s take the same example as just now. Start work at 20, salary RM2,000, retire at 55, salary RM5,000. 

 
 Deduction from pay = 11% = RM220 
Employer contribution = 12% = RM240 
 We will assume no withdrawals are made over entire working period  
EPF annual dividend = 6% 
 

 The interest adds up year over year, and with the help of EPF’s  online calculator , 

 Total EPF savings at 55 years old = RM461,900 

 It is a marginally higher amount than RM176,400 gratuity you will receive from a pension. 

  Benefits  

 
	 Flexibility. At the age of 55, you can withdraw that money and invest in another scheme, venture, or fund that offers greater returns. 
	 Faster growth. As shown, even with a contribution of 11% of your pay, over the course of 35 years it balloons into a large amount of money. 
	 Freedom of employment. You no longer have to work within the constraints of the government or public service. You are free to pursue study or work opportunities as you wish. 
 

  Disadvantages  

 
	 Sometimes things don’t go as planned. You might hit a financial roadblock that forces you to withdraw from your EPF fund. An example of this is a medical emergency. 
	 It subtracts 11% of your base salary. 11% might not seem like much, but for people who live paycheck to paycheck, it can be a bitter pill to swallow. 
	 Annual dividend from EPF can decrease, depending on economic climate. 
 

 Making a comparison 

 Monthly funds 

 Assuming that you live until the mean life expectancy age in Malaysia, which is 76 years old. 

 
 Years to live off retirement fund (pension) = 76-55 = 21 years 
 

 To make a fair comparison, let’s subtract the gratuity amount of a pension scheme from the lump sum of EPF savings. 

 
 EPF at 55 years old - gratuity of pension at 55 years old = RM461,900 - RM176,400 = RM285,500 

 Stipend per month that EPF provides = RM285,500 / 21 years / 12 months = RM1,132.94/month 
 

 Even if we did not subtract the gratuity value, it would be: 

 
 RM461,900 / 21 years / 12 months = RM1,832.94/ month 
 

  It is far less than RM2,600/month from a pension scheme . 

 What if we invest all of EPF savings? 

 Say at the age of 55, you embark on another investment with better returns. We will assume 8%. You pile up all your savings into it. 

 Investment return x EPF savings = 8% x RM 461,900 = RM36,952/year or RM3,079.33/month. 

  It is more than what you’ll obtain from a pension.  However you’ll need to ensure that the second investment has better returns than EPF dividends. That in itself can sometimes be a challenge. 

 Conclusion 

 They both have their advantages and drawbacks. It seems like it is up to you to play it well, to ensure you can lead a comfortable life upon retirement. 

 However the main question of choosing either EPF or pension as retirement savings often boils down to your choice of employer. 

 Will you stay with the government sector for another 30+ years? You don’t want to end up with no retirement fund… No EPF or no pension. That’d be the worst. 

 If yes, go for the pension scheme. It is safe, guaranteed, and offers great peace of mind in your golden years. 

 However, with EPF, you are free to take up opportunities that come your way. Countries like Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Australia are actively seeking out Malaysian nurses with extremely attractive pay. Opportunities for post-graduate education are more limited in the government sector; if in private, you get to choose when you want to do it. You can also fund it with your EPF savings, something you can’t do on a pension. 

 Choose the freedom of choice. Search for high-paying nursing jobs, and overseas jobs on MIMS Career. Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior. 
   

 
 Our Most Popular Articles 

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For those nurses serving with Kementrian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM), the start of your work life will present you with one of the toughest choices you’ll make: EPF (Employees’ Provident Fund, also known as KWSP), or choose...

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 Gynaecology is the medical practice of dealing with the health of the female reproductive system and the breasts. Literally the term gynaecology means “the study of women.” The opposite of gynaecology is andrology, which deals in male-specific medical issues. 

  Almost all modern gynaecologists are obstetricians : physicians who deal in the branch of medicine and surgery of childbirth and labor. These two fields overlap in many areas, therefore in many institutions Obstetrics and Gynaecology are lumped together as O&G. 

 Gynaecology is concerned with the health of the female reproductive organs and the ability to reproduce. It also encompasses paediatric and adolescent problems to post-menopausal ages. 

 History 

 From ancient Egypt circa 1800 BC, the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus is the oldest known medical text of any kind. It writes about women’s complaints; gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc. In the 4th century BC Hippocrates wrote texts about gynaecological diseases that were common afflictions to Greek women at the time. 

 J Marion Sims is widely considered to be the father of gynaecology. He operated during the 19th century at Jefferson Medical College, New York. However the title is now being scrutinized due to his unethical development of his surgical techniques. He operated a lot on slaves, many of whom were not given anaesthesia. 

 Training 

 Post-basic courses on midwifery, gynaecology, and obstetrics are considered to be part of gynaecological training. If desired, a nurse can opt to pursue a Masters in order to carry out research work in the field, and proceed to doctorate studies. 

 Training is given out to encourage the study and advancement of the practice of gynaecology. It is also done by the publication of clinical guidelines and reports on aspects of the specialty and service provision. 

 Gynaecology is a vast field. Nurses who work in this area have sub-specialties in high-risk obstetrics, fertility care, or minimal access surgery. The job most deals with healthy women, where unexpected challenges can present themselves on a daily basis. Work includes a large number of hands-on procedures, and training reflects that. 

 Common Cases 

 Patients range from those who have chronic disorders which are not life threatening, to those who require immediate acute emergency treatment. 

 Nurses in this field are often required to provide assistance during operative procedures. Some of the common procedures a gynaecological nurse with oversee include: 

 
	 dilation and curettage 
	 Oophorectomy 
	 Exploratory laparotomy 
	 Treatments for urinary incontinence 
	 Cervical excision procedures 
	 treatment of polyps 
	 surgery for cancers 
 

 A major part of a gynaecology nurse is the delivery of infants. Their work includes: 

 
	 assist delivery using instruments (forceps or vacuum) 
	 C-sections 
	 Foetal health 
 

 Career Opportunities 

 
	 Independent Nurse Consultant 
	 Educator 
	 Training programme director for gynaecology nursing 
	 
	 Research in public and private sectors 
	 
	 - 
 
   

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 Nephrology/Renal Nursing 

 Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys:  the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, kidney health, and the treatment of kidney problems.  It encompasses dietary and medication to replacement forms of treatments. Systemic conditions that affect the kidneys and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems are also studied in nephrology. A physician who has undertaken additional training to become an expert in nephrology may call themselves a nephrologist or a renal physician. 

 A nephrology nurse (or renal nurse - those two terms are used interchangeably) is a nursing practitioner that focuses on kidney health. They treat and care for patients that are suffering from those suffering from kidney problems as well as those that are at risk of developing them. 

 As a renal nurse, one must be prepared to stay on top of current developments, as treatments in this field are accelerating their development at a very rapid pace. This is possible to be done by regular consumption of renal-related literary content such as medical journals. Attending seminars and conference is also a possible method. 
   

 Scope 

 Renal nursing concerns the  diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases , including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those needing replacement therapy, including dialysis and transplant patients. 

 Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself. Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides and autoimmune diseases, as well as congenital or generic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease. 

 Methodology of nursing 

  History and physical examinations are central to the diagnostic workup in nephrology or renal nursing.   

 This may include inquires regarding family history, general medical history, diet, medication use, drug use and occupation. Examination typically includes an assessment of volume state, blood pressure, skin, joints, abdomen, and flank. 

 Urinary analysis (urinalysis) is an instrumental method in assessing possible kidney problems. Nurses in this specialization are trained to notice the appearance of blood in the urine, protein, pus cells or cancer cells in the urine, often with the help of a urologist or nephrology physician. 

 Basic blood tests can be used to check the concentration of hemoglobin, platelets, sodium, potassium, chloride, or phosphate in the blood. All of these may be affected by kidney problems, and renal nurses are supposed to be well-versed in this area. 

 Under certain circumstances, an invasive test is required for diagnosis. A biopsy of the kidney may be performed. This typically involves the insertion, under local anesthetic and ultrasound or CT guidance, of a core biopsy needle into the kidney to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. Kidney biopsy is also used to monitor response to treatment and identify early relapse. 

 Training 

 The process differs across countries, but the outcome is indefinitely similar. Nephrology is a subspecialty of general medicine. A nephrology/renal nurse will have to complete nursing school, a minimum of three years of practice as a general nurse, and a BSN (Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing) or post-basic course in renal subjects. Typically this training lasts 1-2 years. 

 Nurses in training for renal nursing often continue in the world of academia to obtain research degrees, putting a temporary halt to their clinical practice. Some also sub-specialize in dialysis, kidney transplantation, CKD, cancer-related kidney diseases, procedural nephrology or other non-nephrology areas. 

 However, only pediatric-trained nurses are allowed to train in pediatric nephrology, due to differences in physiology. 

 Work environment 

 A major task and responsibility for renal nurses are  administering treatments to patients.  Treatments can include medications, blood products, surgical interventions, renal replacement therapy and plasma exchange. Kidney problems can have a significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and advanced care planning play key roles in nephrology. 

 Renal nurses often find themselves having a better work setting compared to their non-specialized counterparts. Schedules are less erratic, especially for nurses working in dialysis support roles. 

 On average, renal nurses with post basic certification get  about 10% more pay.  

 Career opportunities 

 
	 Dialysis centers (out- and in-patient) 
	 Nephrology wards 
	 Transplant units 
	 Home care 
	 Medical device industry 
	 Pharmaceutical industry 
	 Government and nonprofit healthcare settings (eg:  NKF ) 
	 Community clinics 
 

 There is a severe shortage of nephrology nurses in Malaysia. 

 Search for high-paying job in renal nursing at  MIMS Career . MIMS Career is a premier, healthcare-focused job portal site for Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia. Our simple sign-up process allows you to easily apply for jobs you might be interested in with a single click. Job locations include hospitals, nursing homes, and private practices. It’s free, easy to use, and safe. 

 Can’t find what you’re looking for? Set up a job alert and we’ll notify you by email whenever positions that suit your preferences are available. All of our pages are mobile-responsive, so you can take your applications with you on the go. 
   

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Career Highlight: Specialty in Nephrology/Renal

Nephrology/Renal Nursing Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, kidney health, and the treatment of kidney problems. It...

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