The Device That Changed The Practice Of Medicine: The Stethoscope

Imagine for a moment the year 1800. A doctor is meeting with a patient – most likely in the patient’s home. The patient is complaining about shortness of breath. A cough, a fever. The doctor might check the patient’s pulse or feel their belly, but unlike today, what’s happening inside of the patient’s body is basically unknowable. There’s no MRI. No X-rays. The living body is like a black box that can’t be opened.

The only way for a doctor to figure out what was wrong with a patient was to ask them, and as a result patients’ accounts of their symptoms were seen as diseases in themselves. While today a fever is seen as a symptom of some underlying disease like the flu, back then the fever was essentially regarded as the disease itself.

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But in the early 1800s, an invention came along that changed everything. Suddenly the doctor could clearly hear what was happening inside the body. The heart, the lungs, the breath. This revolutionary device was the stethoscope.

The inventor of the stethoscope was a French doctor named René Laennec. In medical school, he had learned to practice percussion – a technique in which doctors tap their fingers against a patient’s chest and listen to the sound to try and hear what’s going on inside.

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One day, he tried percussing a patient but had trouble hearing. So he rolled up his notebook into a little cylinder and put one end on the patient’s chest and one end in his ear. He was so impressed by the quality of the sound that he decided to construct a device for listening to the internal sounds of the body.

The result was the original stethoscope. Laennec had invented a way to hear the inner workings of the human body. Now he needed to connect the sounds he was hearing with what was happening anatomically inside the patient’s body.

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To do this, Laennec listened to people right before they died, and then connected these sounds to discoveries made during the autopsy. Soon, Laennec made some key discoveries using his stethoscope. For example, he found that when a person has fluid beneath their lungs, they make a bleating sound, kind of like a goat. A sound he called egophony. He also discovered sounds that tracked with the different stages of tuberculosis.

Laennec published his results, and soon doctors were making other important discoveries that changed the way people thought about disease. Little by little our entire understanding of disease shifted from one centered around symptoms to one centered around objective observation of the body. Medical language completely changed, as doctors invented new anatomical words for diseases, like Bronchitis, which means the inflammation of the bronchial tubes.

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In parallel, the device evolved as well. In the 1840s, doctors began experimenting with flexible tubing and soon an Irish physician invented the binaural stethoscope design with two earpieces that we still use.

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This evolving device got doctors thinking about disease in new ways, changing their dynamic with patients and giving doctors a lot more power. Before the stethoscope, to be sick, the patient had to feel sick. After the stethoscope, it didn’t matter what patients thought was wrong with them, it mattered more what the doctor found.

René Laennec actually felt that patient’s accounts of their own disease were still important, but the quest for objective information about disease was underway, and the stethoscope was just the beginning. Now we have X-rays, CT scanners and MRI and PET scans. All of these devices are basically trading upon the same paradigm that the stethoscope created: that doctors should be able to detect abnormalities inside the body to reach a diagnosis, regardless of how the patient is feeling.

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These new technologies have led to so many important discoveries about the human body and disease. Today, we can spot tumors before they become life threatening and diagnose problems like high blood pressure before they causes heart disease. But this new way of thinking has also pushed doctors and patients farther apart. The doctor is no longer in your bedroom interviewing you about every detail of your experience.

René Laennec died in 1826 at the age of 45, mostly likely of tuberculosis, a disease he and his stethoscope helped us understand. It’s been 200 years since he first rolled up his note book and pressed it to that patient’s chest. Medicine looks completely different than it did back then, but somehow the stethoscope has endured.

It’s no longer a wooden cylinder, but to this day, when you walk into a doctor’s office for a routine exam, you can expect to feel the familiar stethoscope on your back.

But that could be changing. Powerful imaging technologies like ultrasound have made the stethoscope exam less critical to the diagnostic process. Medical students aren’t as good as using stethoscopes as they used to be, and across the board doctors today rely less on the stethoscope to make diagnoses. The rise of portable ultrasound has some doctors arguing that we don’t need the stethoscope anymore. They say that if you have that technology right at the bedside, why not use it right away? Ultrasound is an incredible tool, but it still isn’t widely available in many developing countries, and even in the United States it’s expensive. Right now the stethoscope functions as a screening tool so that patients don’t need to go get an expensive ultrasound unless they need one.

Dr. Andrew Bomback is a nephrologist and an assistant professor at Columbia. He still uses his stethoscope, but he says that in general doctors aren’t as good at listening to the body as they once were, and they rely on the stethoscope exam less and less to make a diagnosis. “It’s become almost a ritual more than an actual tool in terms of making diagnosis,” Bomback explains.

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Regardless of how it’s used, the stethoscope remains omnipresent in our culture. Do a Google image search for doctor, and you will see what a physician is supposed to look like. The plurality of the doctors pictured on the first page of results are white men in white coats. Some of them are peering inside patient’s ears, others are writing something down on a clipboard. But all of them have stethoscopes.

And they are wearing the stethoscope in the exact same way–which is like a shawl around the back of the neck. Andrew Bomback says this way of wearing the stethoscope is a relatively recent fashion trend, probably borrowed from TV shows like ER and Scrubs. Doctors used to wear their stethoscopes dangling down the front of the shirt like a tie, which was practical. If you needed to use it quickly you could just pop it into your ears. Bomback observes that “it’s almost like this new version of wearing it like a scarf or a shawl is almost a concession that it’s more a fashion accessory than actually a tool that we’re using.”

But even if it’s become a fashion accessory, Dr. Bomback isn’t ready to give up his stethoscope. He says it’s an important conduit to connecting with his patients. Physical contact between a doctor and a patient has become increasingly rare. Doctors visits are short and physicians often spend much of time staring at a computer screen. Bomback says the stethoscope provides an important opportunity for intimacy.

“The stethoscope is still a part of the exam” he says, “aligned with the laying on of hands” associated with healers. “When we go to do the physical exam, we move away from our desk, we move away from the computer, and we stand right next to the patient and it’s a much more intimate conversation.”

Bomback says he thinks the stethoscope lives on in part to keep doctors and patients from drifting too far apart. To make sure doctors keep close to their patients, and keep listening.


This article originally appeared on 99pi.org. 99 Percent Invisible is a podcast on the design of things we never stop to think twice about. If you enjoyed this article, head over to their website and listen to their playlists.



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 Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical care for people with life-limiting illnesses. It focuses on providing people with relief from the symptoms, pain, physical and mental stresses of the terminal diagnosis. The goal of such therapy is to improve quality of life for both the person and their family. 

 Palliative care is provided by a team of physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and other health professionals who work together with the primary care doctors and referred specialists. It is appropriate at any age and at any stage in a serious illness and can be provided as the main goal of care of along with curative treatment. 

 Although it is an important part of end-of-life care, it is not limited to that stage. Palliative care can be provided across multiple settings including in hospitals, in the patient’s home, as part of the community palliative care programs, and in nursing facilities. Spiritual support is often provided in more interdisciplinary teams. 

 When a medicine or treatment relieves symptoms, but has no curative properties, it is said to be palliative. The word noncurative is sometimes paired with palliative for clarification purposes. 

 Scope 

 Palliative care is for patients with any serious illness and who have a physical or mental distress as a result of the treatment they are undergoing. Palliative care increases comfort by reducing pain, alleviating symptoms, and lessening stress for the patient and family. It is mutually beneficial for both patient and caregiver. 

 Emergency care nurses and doctors have a critical role to begin discussions with patients and their families regarding palliative care as they see them go through difficult times in life. 

 Paediatric palliative care is a rapidly growing subset of this field, and services directed specifically for children with serious illness are in dire need of this. 

 Responsibilities 


 
  Assessment of symptoms
 

 A method fr the assessment of symptoms in patients admitted to palliative care is the Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scare, in which there are eight visual analog scales of 0 to 10, indicating the levels of pain, activity, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, appetite and sensation of well-being. On the scale, 0 means absent, and 10 means the worst imaginable possible. Medications are often managed at home by family or nursing support. 


   Further actions 

 Effective methods to ensuring successful palliative care is to provide a safe way for the individual to address their physical and psychological distress, that is to say their total suffering. 

 Dealing with total suffering involves addressing a wide range of concerns, starting with treating physical symptoms such as pain, nausea, and breathlessness. The palliative care teams have become very skillful in prescribing drugs for physical symptoms, and have been instrumental in showing how drugs such as morphine can be used safely while maintaining a patient’s full functions. 

 
  Importance of counselling
 

 Usually, a palliative care patient’s concerns are pain, fears of the future, uncertainties, and worries of their family and feeling like a burden. There are counselling, visual methods, cognitive therapy, and relaxation therapy to deal with it. 

 Pallliative care sees an increasingly wide range of conditions in patients at varying stage of their illness it follows that palliative care teams offer a range of care. This may range form managing the physical symptoms in patients receiving treatment for cancer, to treating depression in patients with advanced disease, to the care of patients in their last days and hours. 

 Training 

 In most countries hospice and palliative care is provided by an interdisciplinary team consisting of physicians, pharmacists, registered nurses, nursing assistant, social workers, and others. The focus on the team is to optimize the patient’s comfort. 

 Nurses in palliative care are given extensive training in counselling, medication dispensing, and support. The aim is about relieving distressing symptoms for the patient. Nurses are also part of the management of the imminently dying patient, more so than the physicians or doctors themselves. 

 Work Opportunities 

 The work opportunities that we get is aplenty. Palliative care is often used interchageably as a term with hospice care, albeit some slight differences. They share some similar goals of providing symptom relief and pain management. Palliative care services can be offered to any patient without restriction to disease or prognosis, and can be appropriate for anyone with a serious, complex illness, whether they are expected to recover fully or not. 

 Hospice is a type of care involving palliation without curative intent. usually it is used for people with no further options for curing their disease or in people who have decided to not pursue treatment that is hard on them. 

 Typically hospice and palliative care nurses work in non-hospital settings.

Career Highlight: Palliative Care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical care for people with life-limiting illnesses. It focuses on providing people with relief from the symptoms, pain, physical and mental stresses of the terminal diagnosis. The...

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	  See if the offer is too good to be true  
	  There is a fee to be paid to "process" your employment  
	  You get the job right away  
	  Unprofessional job interviews  
 

 Job scams 

 In 2013, a South African registered nurse was approached by a man outside the hospital she worked in. The 25-year old man was a recruitment agent for the  KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Department of Health . He offered her a job at another institution, for better pay and work hours. 

 The nurse saw this as a great opportunity. She accepted it, and he produced a contract and offered her the job.  Then he requested USD220 in cash for the job.  

 Thankfully, the nurse grew suspicious, and realized she was being scammed. She immediately alerted hospital staff who arrested the man. 

   

 Grey's Hospital, where the incident happened. 

 That could have ended a lot worse. Luckily in that nurse's case, she was able to spot the scam job offer. It is hoped that this post can help you to spot these harmful acts and avoid costing you your precious time, money, and dignity. Scammers know that finding a job can be tough, and they trick people by advertising where real employers do. 

 Scams are endlessly creative! This list might not encompass all of them, but it will help you in detecting these harmful job scams. 

 
 1. See If The Offer Is Too Good To Be True 

   

 If it seems like you’ve landed yourself the best offer in the world,  DON’T . The hiring managers will say something to you like: 

 
 You can earn as much as you want, there is no upper limit on your salary. You decide what you earn. You can earn USD5,000 in one week by working at home! 
 

 Run away as fast as you can. These scams like to prey on those desperate for a new job. They take advantage of your desperation by having you excited of their offer. Once they’ve gotten you on their hook, those “employers” can start to demand money, information, and time, just to get your application moving. 

  Watch out for:  

 
	 Really high pay with low amount of working hours 
	 Ability to work anywhere, anytime 
	 Really shady phrases, like “ Drive the sports car you’ve ever wanted after only a few months’ work! ” or " Earn USD3000 by only working FOUR HOURS a week! " 
	 The person contacting you is the President or CEO or other executive level staff. Most of the time, the highest-ranking person contacting you for a job offer is some type of manager or human resources employee. 
 

 2. There is a fee to be paid to "process" your employment 

   

 If the hiring manager contacts you again and informs you that you have to pay [insert amount here] to complete your application, forget it. 

 You might see overseas job offers requiring you to pay a few hundred dollars to "process" your application. They'll claim it's to secure your employment. To sweeten the deal, some of them claim that you'll get back the money within days after you get in the company/institution. 

  Here are the most common ways job scams use to cheat your money, like:  

 
	 Buying their software 
	 Paying a fee to complete your application 
	 Sign up for some insurance program that deducts money from your account every month 
 

 Job scammers make all kinds of promises about your chances of employment, and an astounding amount of them require you to pay them for their services to employ you. It's important to note that the promise of a job is  not  the same thing as a job. If you have to pay for that promise, it's most definitely a scam. 

 3. You get the job right away 

   

 You get the job, without much interviewing, or even applying through anything. The "offer" gets sent to your inbox. They often mention that they got your email from Jobstreet, CareerBuilder, or LinkedIn. 

  Most of the time, these job offers are sent with emails that are similar to emails of legitimate employers. Be careful!  

 
 Imagine if a David Chen from  Ramsay Sime Darby  emailed you about a sweet job offer. If he really worked at RSD, his email would be something like david.c@simedarby.com. Watch out for david.c.simedarby@gmail.com, david.c@gmail.com, david.chen.HR.simedarby@yahoo.com, etc. 

 When in doubt, call up the company and ask for that employee! 
 

  A real company would want to talk to a candidate before hiring him or her.  

 4. Unprofessional job interviews 

   

 Look out for interviews online, such as over  Facebook Messenger . Worse still, are interviews using a software that the scammer asks you to install on you computer. You will risk having your computer infected with harmful malware that can  record what you type  ,  activate your webcam without notifying you , and  hold your personal information as ransom . 

 Look out for interviewers with bad grammar or spelling. If it doesn't seem like what a real professional company would say, don't trust it. 

 
 With some common sense, and a bit of suspicion, you can easily spot scam job offers. The rule of thumb is that if it looks too good to be true, sounds too good to be true, and seems to good to be true, then it's definitely not true. Also look out for shady characters and language. 

 As mentioned above, there is no limit to the creativity of these scam artists and their job offers. The tips mentioned above might cover  ALL  the scam job methods out there, but at least you'll be better prepared, and more aware that these things can happen. 

 As a healthcare-focused job portal site,  MIMS Career  takes the legitimacy of any employer and job posting  very seriously . We screen employers thoroughly, contacting them at various levels, to determine authenticity of said employers. Our  privacy policy  also dictates that we  never  share your personal information to unrelated third parties, nor do we sell them. 

 The next time you're in search of a job, apply through  MIMS Career . Sign up, fill in your details, and apply for job vacancies from top healthcare institutions in  Malaysia ,  Singapore ,  Indonesia , and the  Philippines  with one click. 

 Browse through our extensive database of job postings, updated daily. Our pages are mobile-responsive, so you can save jobs you're interested in on your desktop, and continue reading about it and apply later on your phone. 

 Can't find what you're looking for? Set a job alert, and we'll notify you once a job with your preferences is made available. Sign up now with  MIMS Career . It's fast, convenient, and secure. We do the hard work of verifying scam jobs so you won't have to. 
   

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 1. Midwifery 

  What : Interested in obstetrics and gynaecology? Taking up a midwifery course can land you jobs in O&G offices, clinics, or hospitals. In O&G settings, emergencies can arise at any time, so expect some pretty hectic days. You can even open up your private practice as well. 

  How : A lot of teaching institutions offer midwifery courses in Malaysia. You can check out MAHSA, IMC, UKM, and others. Course duration takes about 1-2 years. 

  Why : Nurses with Midwifery skills can earn up to 33% more than normal registered nurses. Search high-paying Midwifery jobs now. 



 2. Administrative Skills 

  What : This is a part of nursing that not many will look at. With good administrative skills, you can take on behind-the-scenes roles and oversee the “business” aspect of nursing. You can review budgets, HR functions, management, and more. 

  How : Take up administrative tasks, or courses. A lot of universities and colleges offer full- and part-time programs that you can fit in your schedule. Otherwise, online courses work as well. You can find more here. 

  Why : Nurse Administrators earn about 30% more than unspecialized nurses. 



 3. Telemetry and Informatics 

  What : As global advances in electronics become more and more sophisticated, technology companies have been producing better instruments to help healthcare workers better understand their patients. Reading these instruments require skill, training, and critical thinking in order to use the data to make decisions on treatments. 

  How : You’d need a Masters in nursing, or computer science and its equivalents. This is an emerging field, so don’t expect it to be so widespread, but you will be in high demand and paid more. 

  Why : The salary ranges from USD58,088 to USD105,034. 



 4. A different language 

  What : The advantages are numerous. You can expose yourself to new settings. New people. Take more opportunities you wouldn’t have done without that third or fourth language. Right now Mandarin is very highly prized in this side of the world. 

 What about Arabic? There’s a huge market for nurses there. Knowing Arabic would create better patient-nurse relationship that’s beneficial to treatment. 

  How : Take up language classes! Learning centers are abundant. Online classes are available here as well. 

  Why : It opens a world of job opportunities, gives your brain a boost, and develop priceless intercultural relationships. 



 5. Use MIMS Career! 

  What : MIMS Career is an effective, one-stop application platform for nurses in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines. Signup today and enjoy our unique 1-click application process to countless high-paying nursing jobs. 

  How : Signup. Fill in your details and resume. Apply.  

  Why : Find high-paying nursing jobs in the comfort of your home, or wherever you are. Get connected with top healthcare employers in the country, for free, in a safe, secure manner.

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1. Midwifery What : Interested in obstetrics and gynaecology? Taking up a midwifery course can land you jobs in O&G offices, clinics, or hospitals. In O&G settings, emergencies can arise at any time, so expect some pretty...

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 Emergency Nursing 

 Emergency medicine, formerly known in some countries as accident and emergency medicine (A&E), is the medical specialty involving care for  undifferentiated and unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.  

 Overview 

 As first-line providers, emergency nurses and doctors are responsible for: 

 
	 initiating investigations and interventions to diagnose and/or treat patients in the acute phase 
	 coordinating care with doctors from other specialties 
	 making decisions regarding a patient’s need for hospital admission, observation, or discharge. 
 

 Emergency nurses generally practice in hospital emergency departments, wards, units or intensive care units. They may also be working at pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, such as in the event of a calamity like a road accident. Moreover, emergency nurses also may work in primary care, such as urgent care clinics. 

 History 

 During the 18th century the French Revolution brought upon the development of the ambulance. After seeing the speed with which the carriages f the French flying artillery maneuvered across the battlefields, French military surgeon Dominique Jean Larrey applied the idea for rapid transport of wounded soldiers to a central place where healthcare was accessible. 

 Emergency medicine and nursing is a relatively new field. It was only in 1979 that a vote by the American Board of Medical Specialties that emergency medicine became a recognized medical specialty in the United States. Other countries followed suit soon thereafter. 

 Scope of Work 

 Emergency nursing is a specialization based on the knowledge and skills for the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute and urgent aspects of illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a full spectrum of undifferentiated physical and behavioral disorders. 

 It further encompasses an understanding of the development of pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency medical systems and the skills necessary for this development. 

 Common Tasks 

 
	 Triaging of patients 
	 Suture complex lacerations 
	 reduce a fractured bone or dislocated joint 
	 treat a heart attack 
	 manage strokes 
	 stop severe nosebleeds 
	 placing a chest tube 
	 conducting emergency tracheostomy 
 

 Work location 

 Emergency nurses are tasked to provide the acute care of internal medical and surgical conditions. In many emergency departments, nurses are tasked with seeing an alarmingly large number of patients, treating their illnesses and arranging their next steps. 

 Training 

 There are a variety of models for emergency nursing training across the globe. In some countries the emergency nurse rides in the ambulance to and fro the scene of emergency. This is done to provide stabilizing care to the affected patient. 

 Nurses in emergency departments require a broad field of knowledge and advanced procedural skills of many nursing fields. They must know how to: 

 
	 Resuscitate a patient 
	 Carry out surgical procedures 
	 provide cardiac life support 
	 Manage patients’ airways 
 

 Specialization for emergency nursing often happens after a post-basic certification proceeding three years of service as a registered nurse. 

 Required skillset 

 Emergency nurses require an extensive amount of cool-headedness to handle the oncoming onslaught of daily tasks that present themselves. A great number of emergency ward cases are urgent and time-sensitive in nature, therefore the nurse needs to exercise great caution and patient, while being curt and efficient at the same time. 

 Good teamworking skills is essential. The role of an emergency nurse also involves proper triaging of patients into in- or out-patient services, and work with various specialists or fields to determine the best course of action following prognosis. A positive, proactive, and supportive nurse is beneficial in any emergency setting. 

 Clear communication skills are required in order to convey the correct information to emergency dispatchers or hospital emergency personnel. Failure in conveying correct medical info will prove to be disastrous for the patient, incur financial losses, and increase chances of litigation due to malpractice. 

 Career opportunities 

 Emergency nurses can work in a wide variety of settings, and they include: 

 
	 First aid volunteers 
	 Emergency medical services (BOMBA, paramedics) 
	 paediatric emergency medicine 
	 rescue squads 
	 emergency medical technician 
	 traumatology 
 

 It is not uncommon for nurses to leave clinical work in order to focus on research, especially at the post-graduate levels of study. 

 Search for high-paying nursing jobs on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are  heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.  
   

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 Résumé’s (also known as CVs) are great. They sumarize your experiences onto a few pages so your employer can quickly get a sense of who you are before hiring you. However, employers have to go through a lot of résumés in their search for a potential hire, so making a great résumé can result in a good first impression. 

 Traditionally, résumés have been blocky, information-dense pieces of paper that you send out to employers you’re checking out. With the advancements in personal computing, software and printing, people have been more and more creative with how they craft their résumé’s. 

 The more traditional approach can look more professional and neat, but a creative approach can often help you stand out from the crowd. Choose a method that best presents you in a positive light. 

 Before you write your résumé 

 Before you write down your résumé, sit down and take note of what you’ve done. Any interesting projects taken? Achievements? List it down. 

 Also verify the dates of your education background. It can be easy to forget, especially if you’ve left your academic studies for a long time. Also try and find out the full course or programme names of your certificates, degrees, doctorates. 

 Doing great things lead to a great résumé. Take up as many opportunities as possible that can be put on a résumé, like volunteer work, teaching, skills training, etc. 

 The traditional approach 

 Easy way: Use a predefined template from Word, Pages, or Docs. 

  Tools needed: A PC, tablet, or smartphone.  

 This is as simple as it gets: 

 
	 Open the word processor, and select from the list of templates given. 
	 You can add, remove, or move around certain sections which do not pertain to you. 
	 For example, for a fresh graduate, your education background would come above your work experience because the former is more important at that stage of life. Vice versa for those already working. 
	 Want more templates? Check out  https://r  ésumégenius.com/résumé-templates . 
 

 Normal way: Build it from scratch. 

  Tools needed: PC, tablet, smartphone. Word editing software needed.  

 Building your résumé from scratch allows you to customize every single aspect of that you can present to your future employer. 

 Start by writing down your info. Be concise, truthful, and accurate. 

 Then  add your work experience , or educational background. As previously mentioned, this depends on whether you’re still studying or have already worked. Put it in reverse-chonological order; meaning the latest job first, and the first job last. Same with education. 

  Add in your skills.  It helps employers a lot if you could put in the degree of proficiency. To keep it simple, just rate it from 1-5. For example, ANSYS = ⅘ , SolidWorks = ⅗, verbal communication ⅗, and so on. Some skills to add include software (ANSYS, SPSS), or equipment handling (telemetry, ECG, cardiographs). 

  Don’t forget to add in your language ability.  When working in sectors like healthcare, where you deal with a diverse set of people (especially in multi-cultural Malaysia!) it helps to be bi- or trilingual. Employers love that. 

 Now that you’ve added all you have to add, start by styling the text appropriately. A good rule to follow is to enlarge each point by a few titles, then bold it, so the reader can quickly skim through your résumé. 

  Ensure there is enough spacing.  Think of whitespace as breathing room. You want your text to be able to breathe in order to be legible. A cramped document is not fun to read. 

 Add in the headers and footers. A good use of headers would be your  name and contact number , in 9-pt font. Employers often put your résumé in a stack, and putting something to identify you there would help a great deal. You can put a page number on the footer for continuity purposes. 

 View over the entire document. Ensure the margins are properly aligned. Is the font legible? Clear? Then head over to save and print it out. You’re done! 

 The creative approach 

 With easy application processes from job portals like MIMS Career, employers now are as equally likely to read your résumé in a digital format, on a screen. 

 This allows for some creativity, as current screens can now reproduce millions of colors, in different shapes and sizes. 

 Remember not to overdo a creative design; keep it subtle, keep it clean, and keep the information legible. 

 Easy way: Use an online résumé builder. 

  Tools needed: PC, with keyboard and mouse recommended. An internet connection is important.  

 My favorite résumé builder is, by far,  Novorésumé . 

 Very intuitive controls. A good degree of customization available. 

 Their presets are killer design. They’ve matched out complementary colors in each of their templates so you don’t have to. They’re all subtle, yet sophisticated. Clean, yet intricate. 

 It’s also multi-lingual, so you can craft your Bahasa Malaysia résumé in it as well. 

 Have a look at Elon Musk’s résumé, generated by Novorésumé. It’s simple, packed, and most importantly, eye-catching. It already looks superior compared to a lot of the résumés we have seen. It also proves that you don’t need many pages to list down your info, despite being one of the world’s most successful visionaries. 

   

 There are also other résumé builders online:  Reed  is one of them. Just do a Google search, you’ll eventually find out with layouts or usability that you really like. 

 The Normal way: Design it yourself! 

  Tools: PC, Keyboard + Mouse, Drawing tablets optional, PhotoShop/Illustrator/Any online sketching tool.  

 To do this, you might need some additional skills with illustration software. 

 The idea is to create a layout that draws attention but doesn’t compromise on information legibility. 

 You can have a look at great designs from dribbble.com, a site where great designers like to post their work. Have a look at the ones you like, and determine what you like about them and incorporate them into your design. It’s good inspiration. 

  You need to keep in mind 4 things:  

  Typography  

 
	 Use 15-25px only. A too large text-size can look goofy and awkward. 
	 Like a kids book. Use a big font for headlines, and employ a low font weight. Like Helvetica or Lato. 
	 Since you’re sending this over the web, and it will be read on screen, go for a sans-serif font for easier legibility. 
 

  Colors  

 
	 Use only one base color. A résumé with too many colors will make it look amateur and is a pain to see. In the end, your résumé is an official document used to represent you in a good light. 
	 Never choose black for your base color. Black never appears in the real world. It is sombre, demure, and lacks energy. 
	 It is always a bad idea to use black for anything that is to be displayed on-screen, other than text. 
 

  Icons  

 
	 Icons can help increase aesthetic features and help you stand out. 
	 Use icons that are recognizable, like a suitcase for work experience, a graduation hat for education, etc. 
	 I recommend the use of icon fonts. They are scalable at various dpi on-screen. 
 

  Whitespace layout  

 
	 Whitespace is space where there’s no stuff. 
	 Use it to define hierarchy by putting some space between your education, work, skills, and information sections. 
	 Use that whitespace to build flow for the résumé reader. 
 

 Conclusion 

 That’s it! It all depends on how much time and effort you can put in to your résumé. Remember to keep it simple, accurate info, and not too long; 2 pages should be the absolute maximum. 

 You what would be a great use of that résumé? Use it when applying for jobs in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, and Indonesia with our job portal,  MIMS Career .. A lot of nurses, doctors, and other healthcare practitioners have been using the service, and many of them have landed the jobs at the location they’ve always wanted. Signup and apply now using our 1-click application feature. It’s fast, safe, and free. Any problems? Email us at mycareer@mims.com for more inquiries.

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