A Career in Cardiology

1. Specialization tasks
2. Pathway
3. Common job scopes
4. Common terms
5. Career opportunities

Cardiology

Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system the field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons. The supporting role of the surgeons and physicians are cardiology nurses.

Although the cardiovascular system is inextricably linked to blood, cardiology is relatively unconcerned with hematology and its diseases. Some obvious exceptions that affect the function of the heart would be blood tests, decreased oxygen carrying capacity, and coagulopathies.

Coagulopathies

source: Resus.me

Specialization Tasks

All cardiologists study the disorders of the heart and all cardiology nurses are trained to take care of either adult or children conditions. This is due to differing aspects of training for adult and paediatric physiology. Surgical aspects are not included in cardiology and are in the domain of cardiothoracic surgery.

For example, coronary artery bypass surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass are both surgical procedures performed by surgeons, and not cardiologists. As a nurse, your task will be that of assisting the cardiologists in this matter. A properly-trained cardiology nurse would have the necessary critical thinking in order to draw conclusions to make meaningful impact of treatment.

Common tasks in the wards that you might have to do include the insertion of stents, pacemakers, and valves.

Pathway

Cardiology OT

source: verywell

Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. To be a cardiology nurse, a three-year work experience followed by a post-basic or relevant course is required. It is possible to sub-specialize in Malaysia. Recognized sub-specialties in cardiology for Malaysia are cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology, and nuclear cardiology.

Currently there is insufficient data for Malaysia, for salary, but it is guaranteed to be higher or on par with other similar nursing specialists.

Common job scopes

Cardiology is a vast field. Not only does it involve the heart and its systems, it also involves supporting systems such as haematology and its diseases. It is important to know and train for this when pursuing this specialization.

Cardiac electrophysiology

An example of echocardiography

An example of echocardiography

This is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to desccribe studies of such phenomena by invasive catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulations. These studies are performed to assess complex arrythmias, relieve symptoms, evauate abnormal ECGs, assess risk of developing arrhythmias in the future, and to design treatment.

Cardiac examination

The cardiology nurse is able to carry out cardiac examinations of patients. It is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology. It would typically be modified depending on the indication and integrated with other examinations especially the respiratory examination. Like all medical examinations, the cardiac examination follows the standard structure of inspection, palpation, and auscultation.

Paediatric cardiology

Paediatric cardiology

source

Paediatric cardiology is a specialty of paediatrics. To be a paediatric cardiology nurse, one must complete at least three years of registered working experience and pass all the required courses. Adult cardiology certifications are not valid due to differences in physiology in children.

Common complications that you will see as a nurse practicing paediatric cardiology are paediatric hypertension, paediatric hyperlipidemia, heart palpitations and arryhthmias.

Diagnostic tests

Diagnostic tests in cardiology are the methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy pathology heart function. It is commonly started by obtaining a medical history, followed by auscultation. Blood tests soon precede after, and imaging can be done on a need-to-do basis.

Common terms

1. Tetralogy of Fallot

It is the most common congenital ehart disease arising in 1-3 cases per 1000 births. The cause of this defect is a ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. These two defects combined causes deoxygenated blood to bypass the lungs and going right back into the circulatory system. The modified Blalock-Taussig is used as a treatment for this condition.

2. Pulmonary atresia

This happens in 7-8 births per 100,000 and is characterized by the aorta brancing out of the right ventricle. It causes deoxygenated blood to bypass the lungs and enter the circulatory system. Fixing it can by done by a team of cardiologists and nurses by redirecting the aorta and fixing the right ventricle-pulmonary artery connection in surgeries.

3. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle is when both great arteries, the pulmonary artery and the aorta, are connected to the right ventricle. There is usually a ventricle in different particular places depending on the variations of DORV, typically 50% are subaortic. A VSD closure is the most common form of treatment for this condition.

Career opportunities

Search for high-paying cardiology nursing jobs on MIMS Career. Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to prevent scams and mistrustful behavior.

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 Think about working in Australia. The salary of nurses are one of the highest in the world. They have a large, interesting country with endless things to explore. The quality of life is great; it is second best globally. People live outside a lot more than they do here, are laidback, and friendly. 

 Working overseas, while initially scary, can be one of the best decisions you ever make. Being outside your comfort zone forces you to grow as you are tested by challenges that not many people will get the opportunity to go through. 

 Depending on where you go, it can be very different from back home. This change in environment builds confidence as a result of changes in your perspective. Not only will it look good on your resume for future career opportunities, a new country is a land of endless discovery that you can make during your downtime after work. 

 Want to work as a nurse in Australia? Read on to find out. 

  About Australia  
 Register with NMBA  
 Apply for skills assessment with AMNAC  
 Get on AHPRA online public register  
 Pass the AMNAC skills assessment  
 Living in Australia  

 About Australia 

 Because it was geographically isolated as an island for millions of years, many species can only be found on the Australian sub-continent. Australia is a rapidly advancing country: it is the 13th-largest economy, and is ninth on the list of income-per-capita. It ranks highly in terms of quality of life, healthcare, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and human rights. An influx in migration from all over the globe to Australia has resulted in the country becoming a rich, diverse, and friendly melting pot of cultures and ideas. 

 Register with NMBA 

 The process of migrating to Australia for work as a nurse involves a few regulating bodies. In a nutshell, in order to practice nursing, you’d have to register with the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA). This board handles your qualifications, and deems your education to be relevant, meeting Australian standards. Then you have to apply with the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council, or ANMAC. This body takes into account your work experience, and handles your migration to Australia. It is possible to be accepted by the NMBA, but rejected by the ANMAC. 

 The suggested pathway is to register with the NMBA first. For registration, they will assess you on three things: 

 
	 Criminal history
	 
		 English language skills (a recent result of tests like IELTS or TOEFL is needed) 
		 Recency of practice. You need to clear this part if you’ve already been practicing as a registered nurse here in Malaysia. Recent grads without prior work experience need not do this step. 
	 
	 
 

 Apply for skills assessment with AMNAC 

 Once this is done, and approved by NMBA, you then apply to AMNAC for a skills assessment. This is the application that will approve your migration to Australia. 

 They have five criteria to submit: 

 
	 Proof of identity 
	 English language proficiency (similar to NMBA criterion) 
	 Educational equivalence (whether or not the nursing degree or training is the same standard as AMNAC’s standards) 
	 Professional Practice 
	 Fitness to practice. 
 

 Get on AHPRA online public register 

 If you’ve graduated from Malaysia, you would have to complete some further training. This is because you do not meet Criteria 3- Education equivalence. Hence you would not be suitable for a skills assessment from AMNAC, which prevents your migration. 

 To get over this hurdle, you need to be on AHPRA’s online public register, which determines that you are fit to practice, and that your education and training are both deemed usable for their healthcare system. 

 This training can be in the form of a bridging program or something similar. Contact the Dept of Immigration and Border Protection for a visa to go to Australia to complete your training. 

 Pass the AMNAC skills assessment 

 Then there’s only left the final step! AMNAC will approve your application to go through their skills assessment. Once that’s done, they will issue a Letter of Determination. If you are suitable for migration, congrats! Head back over to Department of Immigration and Border Protection website to start the visa process. 

 Living in Australia 

 Australia has seven of the top 100 universities in the world so great place for education. Also, each year Australian Government provides approx $200 million dollars in scholarships for local and international students. It’s a good opportunity to raise your children there. 

 Australia is a safe, multicultural, friendly and harmonious society. It has a comparatively very low crime rate and strict gun control laws providing a safe place to live. 

 Medical insurance, healthcare facilities and doctor’s prescription medications are cheaper than many developed countries. So you can have a peace of mind whenever misfortunes happen. 

 Halal food is relatively easy to get in the larger cities. Lately the vegetarian movement has been very well-liked with the local populace. Regardless of your dietary needs, Australia is open enough to accommodate everyone. 

 Conclusion 

 Migration to another country can be scary. There are no certainties. No guarantees. You’d be leaving familiar environment behind, and embracing the change that will happen. Be proud of yourself for taking this next big step in your career. 

 As the world gets smaller and more connected, employers are more in need of healthcare practitioners who are open-minded, culturally-exposed, and competent to meet the needs of 21st century challenges. 

 You stand to gain a new skillsets from experienced specialists who work in challenging environments. It will solidify your confidence - and compassion. That compassion will come from the realization that despite differing borders and flags, we are still one big family. The realization that we’re not so different after all, and that access to health care is a basic human right. 

 Start applying for nursing jobs overseas with MIMS Careers. Just signup, input your details and resume, and you will be able to apply for those job posts with a single click. Not only that, you can save jobs you are interested in for later viewing. 

 Can’t find what you’re looking for? Set up job alerts so we can notify you of new employers that meet your search criteria.

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  Photo cr: Unsplash  

 Mental Health 

 Mental health is a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of mental illness. It is the “ psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment” . From the perspective of positive psychology or holism, mental health may include an individual’s ability to enjoy life, and create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve  psychological resilience . 

 According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health includes “ subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of one’s intellectual and emotional potential, among others.”  Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how mental health is defined. 

 Mental health nurses play and important part in helping patients lead a positive life. It is not uncommon for physical disorders to arise from mental issues. It is a field that is growing in awareness. It is estimated that  40% of Malaysians will suffer from mental health issues in their lifetime . 

 Specialization tasks 

 Maintaining good mental health is crucial to living a long and healthy life. Mental health nurses are required to show a considerable amount of empathy towards their patients in assisting them to make a full recovery. Research has shown that there is stigma attached to mental illness. Therefore, it is extremely important that mental health nurses develop excellent observational skills in the treatment of the patient. 

 Activity therapies 

 Activity therapies, also called recreation therapy and occupational therapy, promote healing through active engagement. Making crafts can be a part of occupational therapy. It is very common for nurses to take patients on walks as part of this type of therapy. 

 Psychotherapy 

 Psychotherapy is the general term for scientific based treatment of mental health issues based on modern medicine. It includes a number of schools, such as  gestalt therapy ,  psychoanalysis ,  cognitive behavioral therapy  and  dialectical behavior therapy . 

 Legal requirements 

 Mental health nurses assist in the legal requirements for the patient. Requirements encompass the setting of the patient or a group of patients. 

 Progress monitoring 

 Mental health nurses may have roles that include visiting patients in their home to monitor their progress and carry out risk assessments. While carrying out this task, nurses assess the risks involved to the patients’ safety, health, and welfare. 

 Pathway 

 In order to specialize as a mental health nurse, you must be a registered nurse, practicing for a minimum of three years. A Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing is an advantage. You must take up a psychiatry-based training course with practical hands-on experience. For those courses, you may be able to get accreditation if you have a degree in psychology, or social work. 

 Required skills 

 You will need to display: 

 
	 
	 Exceptional observational skills. You will be required to assess patients and look out for signs of tension or anxiety, which sometimes are not that obvious. 
	 
	 
	 Physical fitness, especially when working in a hospital. Increased stamina and strength is an added bonus. 
	 
	 
	 Emotionally and spiritually resilient to work in a challenging environment. 
	 
 

 Job prospects 

 While a lot of work for mental health nurses is done in the hospital, the majority is community-based in a wide variety of settings. Some of them include community mental health centers, nursing homes for the elderly, rehab units, and private clinics. 

 Working conditions 

 Salaries for mental health nurses will depend on the level of education that they possess. Those with a BSN or MSN will earn more. The type of institution and experience that you have will also factor in your earnings. 

 It is important to have a calm demeanor and able to handle stress well as you will be working with many difficult patients with psychotic episodes. It can be rather jarring to those who are not used to it. However, when approaching these situations without judgement, many mental health nurses manage to overcome these issues and help the patients with their treatment. 

 Career opportunities 

 Search for high-paying mental health nursing jobs on  MIMS Career . Browse, save, and apply for nursing jobs, all in one-click. Take the opportunity for higher pay and better work locations. Our pages are all mobile-responsive, allowing you to take that leap for a better job whenever, wherever you are. All our job postings are heavily screened to  prevent scams and mistrustful behavior . 

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Photo cr: Unsplash Mental Health Mental health is a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of mental illness. It is the “ psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and...

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